e-estonia est un projet numérique mis en place par l’Estonie après son indépendance en 1991, qui vise à faire du pays une référence en matière de cibercitoyenneté. e-résidence, e-taxe, e-gouvernance, etc., autant de développements susceptibles de nous faire réfléchir aux mutations majeures initiées par l’ère numérique.


success stories
When Estonia started building our information society about two decades ago, there was no digital data being collected about our citizens. The general population did not have the internet or even devices with which to use it. It took great courage to invest in IT solutions and take the information technology route. (source : e-estonia.com)


e-Governance is a strategic choice for Estonia to improve the competitiveness of the state and increase the well-being of its people, while implementing hassle free governance. Citizens can select e-solutions from among a range of public services at a time and place convenient to them, as 99% of public services are now available to citizens as e-services. In most cases there is no need to physically attend the agency providing the service. The efficiency of e-Government is most clearly expressed in terms of the working time ordinary people and officials save, which would otherwise be spent on bureaucracy and document handling. (source : e-estonia.com)


Modern e-solutions have made setting up and running a business in Estonia quick and easy. Estonian e-solutions for business, such as electronic tax claims, have pared bureaucracy down to a bare minimum and facilitated an environment where business is extremely convenient. Today, you can pay your taxes in Estonia only in one click – all you need is 3-5 minutes for the tax filing process and it’s done! That is why each year, around 95 per cent of all tax declarations in Estonia are filed electronically. (source : e-estonia.com)


Running a modern state is a data-driven endeavour and for e-Estonia the open-source backbone is X-Road. This is the invisible yet crucial environment that allows the nation’s various e-service databases, both in the public and private sector, to link up and operate in harmony, and saves more than 800 years of working time for the state and citizens annually. Bear in mind the unique aspect of e-Estonia is that it lacks a centralised or master database – all information is held in a distributed data system and can be exchanged instantly upon request, providing access 24/7. (source : e-estonia.com)


Digital ID
Nearly every one of Estonia’s 1.3 million citizens has an ID card, which is much more than simply a legal photo ID. Technically, it is a mandatory national card with a chip that carries embedded files, and using 2048-bit public key encryption, it can function as definitive proof of ID in an electronic environment. Functionally, the ID card provides digital access to all of Estonia’s secure e-services, releasing a person from tedious red tape and making daily tasks faster and more comfortable whether we are talking about banking or business operations, signing documents or obtaining a digital medical prescription. (source : e-estonia.com)


Estonia was the first nation in history to offer internet voting in a nationwide election in 2005. Completely unrelated to the costly electronic voting systems with their problematic machinery used in some countries, the Estonian open-source voting solution is simple and secure. The groundbreaking i-Voting system allows citizens to vote at their convenience, no matter how far they are from a polling station, since the ballot can be cast from any internet-connected computer anywhere in the world. i-Voting has become a reality only thanks to the fact that the majority of our residents have a unique secure digital identification provided by the state. i-Voting takes just 3 minutes and brings votes from all over the world. (source : e-estonia.com)


Public safety
The introduction of IT has helped to strengthen public order in Estonia and assist in the case of accidents. The use of IT tools in the security services (e-Police, rescue board, emergency centre) has halved the number of deaths by accident in Estonia over the last 20 years. Employees of the security services are now able to remotely determine 35% of the locations of accident victims to within a 5-metre radius, and 93% of emergency calls are answered within 10 seconds. Estonian police are no longer allowed to stop cars for technical checks, as all the relevant data is available using their onboard computer. This has made the police 50 times more efficient. (source : e-estonia.com)


When taking the first steps towards becoming an e-state, Estonia understood that the risk of cyber attacks will always be part of the information society – a risk that must be taken seriously. Although blockchain has only become hot technology in recent years, Estonia is leading the way in the blockchain revolution- Estonian government has been testing the technology already since 2008. Since 2012, blockchain has been in operational use in Estonia’s registries, such as national health, judicial, legislative, security and commercial code systems, with plans to extend its use to other spheres such as personal medicine, cyber security and data embassies. Blockchain technology solves many of the problems that data governance professionals have been trying to solve for years. The technology developed by the estonians is also being used by NATO, U.S. Department of Defence, as well as European Union information systems to ensure cyber security. (source : e-estonia.com)


In Estonia, patients own their health data and hospitals have made this available online since 2008. Today, over 95% of the data generated by hospitals and doctors has been digitized, and blockchain technology is used for assuring the integrity of stored electronic medical records as well as system access logs. e-Health solutions allow Estonia to offer more efficient preventative measures, increasing the awareness of patients and also saving billions of euros. Each person in Estonia that has visited a doctor has his or her own online e-Health record, containing their medical case notes, test results, digital prescriptions and X-rays, as well as a full log-file tracking access to the data. Therefore, doctors can access their patient’s electronic records, no matter where they are and make better informed treatment decisions. (source : e-estonia.com)


e-Residency is Estonia’s gift to the world. It is a transnational digital identity that can provide anyone, anywhere with the opportunity to succeed as an entrepreneur. Like citizens and residents of Estonia, e-residents receive a government-issued digital ID and full access to Estonia’s public e-services. This enables them to establish a trusted EU business with all the tools needed to conduct business globally. They can then use their secure digital identity to manage their company entirely online from anywhere in the world with minimal cost and hassle. (source : e-estonia.com)

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