Calendars – Be they Assyrian, Republican, Iranian, Hindu or Aztec…

CrossCultur'Roads

Tzolkin – 20 periods

The Tzolkin consisted of 20 periods each with 13 days for a 260-day count. Day names - 01: Imix, 02: Ik’, 03: Akʼbʼal, 04: K’an, 05: Chikchan…. The word tzolkʼin means "division of days”.

“Each day had a number and a name, the numbers from 1 to 13 and 20 day names. When the 13 numbers were gone through, they began again, and the 20 day names continued. When the day names were gone through, they repeated, and the numbers continued up to 13. The cycles of 13 and 20 repeated until they came back to the first number, first name again in 260 days. The priests who kept the calendars used the Tzolkin to determine days for sowing and harvest, military triumphs, religious ceremonies and divination.” (historyonthenet.com)

Egyptian calendar

Ancient Egyptian calendar - A solar calendar with a 365-day year consisting of three seasons of 120 days each, and an intercalary month of five epagomenal days. The three seasons were relying on the variations of the Nile river from the flood to low waters.


Calendrier égyptien

Calendrier égyptien antique - Un calendrier solaire avec une année de 365 jours comprenant trois saisons de 120 jours chacune et un mois intercalaire de cinq jours dits épagénoménaux. Les trois saisons reposaient sur les variations du Nil, de l’inondation aux basses eaux.

Haab

The solar calendar or Haab consisted of 18 months of 20 days each, which adds up to 360 days, plus an additional month of five days at the end of the year known as the Wayeb. Each day is represented by a number in the month followed by the name of the month.

Ethiopian calendar

Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር; yä'Ityoṗṗya zëmän aḳoṭaṭär) or Eritrean calendar - Official calendar in Ethiopia, based on the Coptic calendar with a leap day, every four years. It has twelve months with 30 days each and a thirteenth month called Pagume with five or six days depending on the year.

Maya calendars

Maya calendars

Maya calendars - A system of calendars consisting of several cycles (counts) of different lengths with the Tzolkin, a 260-day count and the Haabʼ, a 365-day count. Both form a synchronized cycle lasting for 52 Haabʼ: the Calendar Round. Used by pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and by modern groups in the Guatemalan highlands.


Calendriers mayas - Un système de calendriers consistant en plusieurs cycles (comptes) de différentes longueurs avec le Tzolkin, un compte de 260 jours et le Haabʼ, un compte de 365 jours. Les deux forment un cycle synchronisé d'une durée de 52 Haab'. Utilisé en Méso-Amérique précolombienne ainsi que par des groupes contemporains figurant sur les hauts plateaux guatémaltèques.

Epagomenal days & the Fear

"It is believed that the Egyptians greatly feared these days due to the prevalence of plague and disease, attributed to the wanderers (SmAjw) and slaughterers (xAtjw) of the goddess, Sekhmet, which were particularly rife at the end of the calendar year. Magical texts, such as the Book of the Last Day of the Year on Papyrus Leiden I 346, were recited in order to pacify the goddess, and rituals were performed, for example, the application of linen bandages inscribed with certain deities to the throat to ward off the effects of plague." (source: egyptianaemporium.wordpress.com)

Duration of 235 lunar synodic months

The duration of 235 lunar synodic months corresponding to 19 years with a minute difference of one hour 27 minutes and 33 seconds, it was fixed that at the end of a cycle of 19 years, the same dates of the year correspond almost at the same phases of the Moon. The name metonic cycle comes from the astronomer Meton (fifth century BCE).


La durée de 235 mois synodiques lunaires correspondant à 19 années tropiques avec une différence infime d’une heure 27 minutes et 33 secondes, il a été fixé qu’au terme d’un cycle de 19 ans, les mêmes dates de l'année correspondent presque aux mêmes phases de la Lune. Le nom de cycle métonique lui vient de l'astronome Méton (Ve siècle av. J.-C.).

Epagomenal days – Birthdays of the gods

"The Egyptian year was divided into twelve months of thirty days each, which means that each year was about five days short of the astronomical year. To compensate for this difference, five extra days were added to the year, called epagomenal days. Because they were not part of the normal year created by the gods, the Egyptian regarded these days as particularly ominous, and texts have survived listing exactly what may and may not be done during this period." (source: globalegyptianmuseum.org)
Known as the "birthdays of the gods" in the Egyptian calendar, the epagomenal days were celebrating the birth of: 1 Osiris 2. Horus 3. Set 4. Isis 5. Nephthys.

Wayeb

Wayeb is a period of five days additional to the 18 months of Maya calendar (360 days), said to be dangerous and detrimental to the people, usually staying home and avoiding any activity at risk during this time.

Hebrew calendar

Hebrew or Jewish calendar (הַלּוּחַ הָעִבְרִי, Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) - Luni-solar calendar composed of solar years, lunar months, and seven-day weeks beginning on Sunday and ending on Saturday, Shabbat day. It begins with Genesis (Bereshit), said to correspond to the year 3761BCE in the Gregorian calendar. The years comprise twelve or thirteen lunar months, according to a so-called metonic cycle.


Calendrier hébreu

calendrier hébraïque (הַלּוּחַ הָעִבְרִי, Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) - Calendrier luni-solaire composé d’années solaires, de mois lunaires, et de semaines de sept jours commençant le dimanche et se terminant le samedi, jour du chabbat. Il commence avec la Genèse (Beréshit), correspondant à l’an 3761 avant l’ère chrétienne du calendrier grégorien. Les années comportent douze ou treize mois lunaires, selon un cycle dit métonique.

calendar

A system which purpose is to set the date according to certain beliefs or science(s) which lasts a certain period of time and sometimes falls into oblivion... Its uses are of primary importance in the frame of human activities be they individual or collective, private or public, sacred or profane...


calendrier

Un système dont le but est de fixer la date en fonction de certaines croyances ou d'une ou plusieurs sciences. Son recours dure un certain temps et tombe parfois dans l'oubli... Ses utilisations sont de première importance dans le cadre des activités humaines qu'elles soient individuelles ou collectives, privées ou publiques, sacrées ou profanes...

Calendar Pantopic Scheme

Any suggestion, improvement…? Many thanks and please, contact us…

jiéqì (24)

“The sky is divided into 24 segments or jiéqì (节气) based on the seasons of the year. The earliest calendars assumed that the motion of the sun was constant and divided the year into 24 segments with equal numbers of days. This method is called píngqì (平气). Because the motion of the sun is not consistent, this was found to be inaccurate. The calendar then changed to a method where the ecliptic (the path of the sun as seen from earth) was divided into 24 equal parts of 15 degrees. This method is called dìngqì (定气). Calendars from the Warring States Period through the Ming Dynasty used the pingqi method in their designs and only changed to the more accurate dingqi method during the Qing Dynasty.” (source: hua.umf.maine.edu)

The 24 jiéqì 节气 consist of the succession of 立春 Lì chūn "Beginning of spring" (Spring festival), 雨水 Yǔ shuĭ "Rain water", 惊蛰 Jīng zhé "Waking of insects", 春分 Chūn fēn "Spring equinox" (March 21), 清明 Qīng míng "Pure brightness", etc.

Back to Top