Kanji: 憲. Radical: 心. Number of strokes: 16. Meaning: “ constitution”. Pronunciation: ケンken.

Tagalog & Filipino languages

Tagalog had primarily been spoken in Manila and the surrounding provinces in the 1930s when the Commonwealth Constitution was originally drawn up. This constitution had stipulations in it that provided for an official national language, but it did not specifically name Tagalog as that language. When the constitution was drawn up, Tagalog was only spoken by about 25% of the population. Tagalog was the lingua franca of people who lived in or near the government capital, and by the 1970s, more than half of the Philippine population was using Tagalog to communicate with one another. Then, during the Aquino presidency in the latter half of the 1980s, the national language was officially labeled Filipino.

United States Electoral College

United States Electoral College - A body of (currently) 538 electors established by the Constitution, which every four years elects the president and vice president of the United States. After the election day (Tuesday after the first Monday of November), each state counts its popular votes designating presidential electors. They eventually meet in December in each state to cast their votes and the results are counted by Congress, and tabulated in the first week of January. The Electoral College system is debated.

Collège électoral des États-Unis

Collège électoral des États-Unis - Un corps de (actuellement) 538 électeurs établi par la Constitution, qui élit tous les quatre ans le président et le vice-président des États-Unis. Après le jour de l'élection (mardi après le premier lundi de novembre), chaque État compte ses votes populaires désignant les électeurs présidentiels. Ils se réunissent ensuite en décembre dans chaque État pour voter et les résultats sont dépouillés par le Congrès, puis compilés au cours de la première semaine de janvier. Le système du Collège électoral est débattu.

Loya Jirga – Principles

“It is a mass national gathering that brings together representatives from the various ethnic, religious, and tribal communities in Afghanistan.
It is a highly respected centuries-old consultative body that has been convened at times of national crisis or to settle national issues.
According to the Afghan Constitution, a Loya Jirga is considered the highest expression of the Afghan people. It is not an official decision-making body and its decisions are not legally binding.
However, the Loya Jirga's decision is seen as final, with the president and parliament expected to respect the ruling.” (drishtiias.com)

Tanzimat – Reform and modernisation

“The term Tanzimat ("reorganisation" in Arabic) refers to the reform and modernisation movement that shook the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1878. The Tanzimat was a response to the growing concerns of Ottoman statesmen and intellectuals about the survival of the Empire, which at the time was greatly weakened, prey to internal disputes and under pressure from the European powers. They saw liberalism, the dominant ideology in the Old Continent, as the solution to the ills of the Empire. For almost forty years, they thus undertook a series of reforms, modelled on the European model, which would profoundly transform the Ottoman institutions and society and lead to the promulgation of the first Ottoman Constitution in 1876.”

« Le terme de Tanzimat (« réorganisation » en arabe) désigne le mouvement de réforme et de modernisation qui secoue l’Empire ottoman entre 1839 à 1878. Les Tanzimat répondent aux préoccupations grandissantes des hommes d’Etat et des intellectuels ottomans sur la survie de l’Empire, alors fortement affaibli, en proie à des contestations internes, et sous pression des puissances européennes. Ils voient dans le libéralisme, idéologie dominante dans le Vieux Continent, la solution aux maux de l’Empire. Ils entreprennent ainsi, pendant près de quarante ans, une série de réformes, calquées sur le modèle européen, qui va transformer profondément les institutions et la société ottomane et aboutira à la promulgation de la première Constitution ottomane en 1876. » (lesclesdumoyenorient.com)

Members of United States Electoral College

“The U.S. Constitution specifies that the President and Vice President of the United States are to be chosen every four years by a small group of people (currently 538) who are individually referred to as “presidential electors” and collectively referred to as the “Electoral College.” The Constitution specifies that each state is entitled to one member of the Electoral College for each of its U.S. Representatives and U.S. Senators. Today, there are a total of 538 electoral votes in the Electoral College. This total of 538 corresponds to the : 435 U.S. Representatives from the 50 states, plus 100 U.S. Senators from the 50 states, plus 3 members of the Electoral College to which the District of Columbia became entitled under the 23rd Amendment (ratified in 1961). Every 10 years, the 435 U.S. Representatives are reapportioned among the states in accordance with the latest federal census, thereby automatically reapportioning the membership of the Electoral College among the states. Each political party nominates its own candidates (typically long-standing party activists, officeholders, or donors) for the position of presidential elector. Most nominees for the position of presidential elector are nominated by district and state conventions of political parties. Some are nominated in party primaries.” (nationalpopularvote.com)

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