Instrument d'optique disposant de plusieurs lentilles, et grâce auquel on peut voir des objets très petits permettant de déduire toutes sortes de choses (scientifiques, médicales…).

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Hansen’s disease – Leprosy

“Hansen’s disease (also known as leprosy) is an infection caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium leprae. These bacteria grow very slowly and it may take up to 20 years to develop signs of the infection. The disease can affect the nerves, skin, eyes, and lining of the nose (nasal mucosa). The bacteria attack the nerves, which can become swollen under the skin. This can cause the affected areas to lose the ability to sense touch and pain, which can lead to injuries, like cuts and burns. Usually, the affected skin changes color and either becomes:
• lighter or darker, often dry or flaky, with loss of feeling, or
• reddish due to inflammation of the skin.”
(source: cdc.gov)

Kanji: 目. Radical: 目. Number of strokes: 5. Meaning: “ eye”. Pronunciation: モク、(ボク)、め、(ま)moku, (boku), me, (ma).

117 Million Lakes estimated (2014)

"Using satellite photos and computerized mapping technologies, an international research team counted all of the lakes on Earth. They found about 117 million lakes, covering almost four percent of the world’s land surface, not counting the glaciers on Greenland and Antarctica, according to a new study. It is the first time the world’s lakes have been counted using a reliable method, the study claims." (source: blog.nationalgeographic.org)

"En utilisant des photos satellites et des technologies de cartographie informatisées, une équipe de recherche internationale a dénombré tous les lacs de la Terre. Ils ont trouvé environ 117 millions de lacs, couvrant près de quatre pour cent de la surface terrestre du monde, sans compter les glaciers du Groenland et de l'Antarctique. C'est la première fois que les lacs du monde ont été comptés en utilisant une méthode fiable, selon l'étude." (source : blog.nationalgeographic.org)

Photography for Ella Maillart

“Photography became for Ella Maillart a natural extension of her eyes, and she made ample use of it. The camera was her logbook, a day-to-day record reflecting the vision of a modern, independent and non-conformist woman. Ella Maillart photographed mainly for the purpose of illustrating her travel books as well as her talks and articles. Most of her images remained unknown at the time they were taken. Today, we are stunned to see a by-gone era resuscitated, a disappeared or forgotten world spring back from the past. In 1989, Ella Maillart deposited her negatives at the Elysée Photo Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland, who have organised several large exhibitions of her work.” (ellamaillart.ch)


Organ of sight, in variable number according to creatures (including a pair in humans), whose solicitation in the awakening phase constitutes one of the major attributes of the relationship with the environment and with others (orientation, observation, judgment , emotion, etc.)


Organe de la vue, en nombre variable selon les créatures (comprenant une paire chez l’homme), dont la sollicitation en phase d’éveil constitue un des attributs majeurs de la relation à l’environnement et aux autres (orientation, observation, jugement, émotion, etc.)

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Porter notre attention sur une personne, un objet, une situation, un phénomène, avec un degré plus ou moins élevé de curiosité, de sérieux, dans un but donné, intentionnel ou non (distraction, analyse, critique…) – Dépend souvent de la qualité (capacité, expertise) de qui porte cette observation.

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Bindi: the third eye

Bindi: the third eye

“Made with vermilion powder
Or a sandalwood paste
Bindis बिंदी are a symbol of consciousness,
Good fortune and festivity

From the Sanskrit word ‘bindu’, which means "dot"
It’s "the third eye"
Or Shiva’s "eye of knowledge"
Esp. worn by married women

As the country has modernised
It has become very popular,
For some it’s a fashion accessory in the form of a sticker…”

« Faite à base de poudre vermillon
Ou d’une pâte de bois de santal
Le bindi बिंदी est un symbole de conscience,
De bonne fortune et de festivité

Du mot sanscrit ‘bindu’, qui signifie « la goutte »
Il est « le troisième œil »
Ou « œil de la connaissance » de Shiva
Portée en particulier par les femmes mariées

Avec la modernisation du pays,
La marque sacrée est devenue populaire,
Un accessoire de mode sous forme d'autocollants… »

Proposed by



Louis Braille (1809-1852) created a system of reading and writing for the blind people. (Braille wr)

Louis Braille (1809-1852) a créé un système de lecture et d'écriture pour les personnes non ou mal-voyantes.

What is vision? How to define it? From the Egyptian Udjat to the Turkish Nazar, from the Indian third eye (bindi) to the Mayan strabismus, how have cultures and societies considered the eye? What do we really see? With what consequences? How have sight problems been corrected? How do we consider vision today? the visual environment? How important is this meaning in our relationship to the world? In what way is the image - or not - decisive here? How is our vision changing in the digital age? What consequences can its "increase" have in the perception of the world, of others, of oneself ? (to be completed)

Qu’est-ce que la vision ? Comment la définir ? De l’oudjat égyptien au nazar turc, du troisième œil indien (bindi) au strabisme maya, comment cultures et sociétés ont-elles considéré l’œil ? Que voyons-nous réellement ? Avec quelles conséquences ? Comment a-t-on corrigé les problèmes de vue ? Comment considérons-nous aujourd’hui la vision ? l’environnement visuel ? Quelle importance prend ce sens dans notre relation au monde ? En quoi l’image y est-elle – ou non – décisive ? Comment notre vision se transforme-t-elle à l’ère numérique ? Quelles conséquences peut avoir son « augmentation » dans la perception du monde, des autres, de soi ?... (à compléter)

Maya Strabismus

Maya Strabismus

Maya Strabismus - Kinich Ahau was the cross-eyed Maya Sun god – In order to gain his favor, people esp. of noble rank having crossed eyes were considered very handsome and god-like. An object was hung between their eyes as they were infants to get such characteristics.

Strabisme chez les Mayas - Kinich Ahau était le dieu maya du Soleil dont une caractéristique était de loucher - Pour gagner sa faveur, les gens en particulier ceux de rang noble qui présentaient un strabisme étaient considérés comme beaux et semblables à Dieu. Un objet était même suspendu devant leurs yeux lorsqu'ils étaient bébés afin d’obtenir de telles caractéristiques.

vision du monde

Système cognitif, philosophique, culturel par lequel un individu ou une collectivité développent une relation à l’espace et au temps , aux faits qui s’y succèdent, aux personnes qui y sont attachées, et qui figure à la base de tout jugement, forgeant quelques certitudes ou générant un questionnement □ En encourageant à tenir compte de l’existence et de la légitimité d’autres visions , un progrès sensible pourrait y établir non pas une vision convergente mais un dialogue prospectif et responsable, riche de nos différences.

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Guerewol – A courtship ritual

Guerewol – A courtship ritual

“In-gali, in Niger, is a festival town. At the end of the rainy season, different nomadic peoples (including the Tuaregs) gather there for the “Cure salée”, an important salt market that lasts several weeks. On this occasion, the Woodabe hold the Guerewol, a courtship ritual where men try to woo a jury of young women.
To impress the jury, men will have to show off their best assets and for the Woodabe, that means being tall, having white eyes and teeth and knowing how to bust a move in the traditional song and line-dancing: the yaake. On the day of the performance, men wear elaborate headpieces complete with feathers to make themselves look taller.
Their faces will be painted with red, yellow or white and their lips and eyes contoured in black to emphasize the eyes and teeth Then, the yaake will begin. The yaake is as important as the dress and make-up: it will show how the men can carry themselves, a way to judge of their elegance. During the dance, the contestants will also heavily roll their eyes and show their teeth in the hope that they will be noticed.
The ultimate winner is designated by three women chosen by the elders and the lucky guy has his pick of a love partner but other women also have their pick. The rest of the week-long festival is dedicated to clan meetings, marriage negotiations, and other social events.” (flockeo.com/en/guerewol-niger/)



Nazar ‏نظر‎ - An eye-shaped amulet believed to protect against the evil eye, present in different countries (Turkey, Iran, Albania, Afghanistan, Pakistan…)…


Nazar نظر - Une amulette en forme d'oeil censée protéger du mauvais œil, présente dans différents pays (Turquie, Iran, Albanie, Afghanistan, Pakistan…)…

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Percevoir par ses yeux (naturellement ou de manière assistée) - Renvoie à la qualité (voire à la déficience) de la vue, des conditions dans lesquelles elle s’exerce et de la motivation éventuelle ou non à la solliciter.

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World Braille Day

"World Braille Day, celebrated since 2019, is observed to raise awareness of the importance of Braille as a means of communication in the full realization of the human rights for blind and partially sighted people." - un.org

"La Journée mondiale du braille est célébrée depuis 2019 pour souligner l'importance du braille dans la pleine réalisation des droits fondamentaux des personnes aveugles et malvoyantes." - un.org


Faculté de voir.

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Chinese wr

Chinese wr

Name: 汉字 Hàn Zì (Chinese characters)

Code: Hani

Direction: In ancient times, written texts were read from top to bottom and right to left. Since the 1950s, texts more generally have been read from left to right (except for titles or specific works).

Creation: The creation of the Chinese scriptures is attributed to Cang Jie, minister of the Yellow Emperor. According to legend, Cang Jie possessed four eyes allowing him to see the secrets of heaven and earth. According to the Spring and Autumn Annals "when Cang Jie invented the characters, the sky rained millet and the evil spirits wept in the night". The first known examples of characters written in the evolved form were engraved on turtle bones and shells. These characters were first pictographic.

Complements: Chinese is the oldest of the great writing systems that has continued to evolve without interruption until the present day. / Traditionally, there are eight basic features to form a character.

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