Members of United States Electoral College

“The U.S. Constitution specifies that the President and Vice President of the United States are to be chosen every four years by a small group of people (currently 538) who are individually referred to as “presidential electors” and collectively referred to as the “Electoral College.” The Constitution specifies that each state is entitled to one member of the Electoral College for each of its U.S. Representatives and U.S. Senators. Today, there are a total of 538 electoral votes in the Electoral College. This total of 538 corresponds to the : 435 U.S. Representatives from the 50 states, plus 100 U.S. Senators from the 50 states, plus 3 members of the Electoral College to which the District of Columbia became entitled under the 23rd Amendment (ratified in 1961). Every 10 years, the 435 U.S. Representatives are reapportioned among the states in accordance with the latest federal census, thereby automatically reapportioning the membership of the Electoral College among the states. Each political party nominates its own candidates (typically long-standing party activists, officeholders, or donors) for the position of presidential elector. Most nominees for the position of presidential elector are nominated by district and state conventions of political parties. Some are nominated in party primaries.” (nationalpopularvote.com)

141/200marriage

In September 1948, Ruth Williams and Seretse Khama who was to become the 1st President of Botswana in 1966, got married in London. (English lg, Tswana lg)


en septembre 1948, Ruth Williams et Seretse Khama, qui deviendra le 1er président du Botswana en 1966, se marient à Londres.

What is marriage? How to define it? What are the codes of marriage? How are they enforced - or not enforced? How important has marriage been throughout the history of societies? How has marriage been organized? With what rules? What are the prohibitions? How can it be interrupted during the lifetime or not of those who contracted it? How does the present world rethink the idea and rules of marriage? In what way does the digital intervene in the field of marriage?... (to be completed)

Qu’est–ce que le mariage ? Comment le définir ? Quels sont les codes du mariage ? Comment les respecte–t–on – ou pas ? Quelle a été l’importance du mariage tout au long de l’histoire des sociétés ? Comment s’est organisé le mariage ? Avec quelles règles ? Quels interdits ? Comment l’interrompre du vivant ou non de celles ou ceux qui l’ont contracté ? Comment le monde présent repense–t–il l’idée et les règles du mariage ? De quelle manière le numérique intervient–il dans le champ du mariage ?... (à compléter)

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954-) is the 12th President of Turkey. Playing football for Kasımpaşa, Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998, Prime Minister of Turkey from 2003 to 2014, he also founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2001. Coming from an Islamist political background, he later abandoned openly Islamist politics, advocating negotiations for Turkey's membership of the European Union. A failed military coup d'état attempt in 2016 resulted in massive purges and a state of emergency, the government claiming the coup to have been supported by Fethullah Gülen and his Movement who denied any role in it. His foreign policy has been described as Neo-Ottoman (Syria, Libya, Iraq, views on Mediterranean oil ressources…)


Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954-) est le 12e président de la Turquie. Membre de l'équipe de football de Kasımpaşa, maire d'Istanbul de 1994 à 1998, Premier ministre de Turquie de 2003 à 2014, il a également fondé le Parti de la justice et du développement (AKP) en 2001. Issu d'un milieu politique islamiste, il a ensuite abandonné la politique ouvertement islamiste, soutenant les négociations d'adhésion de la Turquie à l'Union européenne. Une tentative de coup d'État militaire ratée en 2016 a entraîné des purges massives et l'instauration de l'état d'urgence, le gouvernement affirmant que le coup d'État avait été soutenu par Fethullah Gülen et son mouvement qui ont nié tout rôle dans ce coup d'État. Sa politique étrangère a été décrite comme néo-ottomane (Syrie, Libye, Irak, visées sur les ressources pétrolières de la Méditerranée...)

United States Electoral College

United States Electoral College - A body of (currently) 538 electors established by the Constitution, which every four years elects the president and vice president of the United States. After the election day (Tuesday after the first Monday of November), each state counts its popular votes designating presidential electors. They eventually meet in December in each state to cast their votes and the results are counted by Congress, and tabulated in the first week of January. The Electoral College system is debated.


Collège électoral des États-Unis

Collège électoral des États-Unis - Un corps de (actuellement) 538 électeurs établi par la Constitution, qui élit tous les quatre ans le président et le vice-président des États-Unis. Après le jour de l'élection (mardi après le premier lundi de novembre), chaque État compte ses votes populaires désignant les électeurs présidentiels. Ils se réunissent ensuite en décembre dans chaque État pour voter et les résultats sont dépouillés par le Congrès, puis compilés au cours de la première semaine de janvier. Le système du Collège électoral est débattu.

Loya Jirga – Principles

“It is a mass national gathering that brings together representatives from the various ethnic, religious, and tribal communities in Afghanistan.
It is a highly respected centuries-old consultative body that has been convened at times of national crisis or to settle national issues.
According to the Afghan Constitution, a Loya Jirga is considered the highest expression of the Afghan people. It is not an official decision-making body and its decisions are not legally binding.
However, the Loya Jirga's decision is seen as final, with the president and parliament expected to respect the ruling.” (drishtiias.com)

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) was the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938. A national hero at the Battle of the Dardanelles, refusing the defeat and collapse that followed the end of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, he successively defeated foreign armies and was awarded the title of "Gazi" ("The Victorious"). He moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara and his main task was to westernize the country: secularism entered the constitution, Islam no longer being considered the official religion, he replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet and gave women the right to vote. Hisstrong position and unfailing support enabled him to renegotiate the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was in favour of Armenians, Kurds and Greeks, the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) ratifying most of his demands with major consequences for the populations concerned.


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) est le fondateur et le premier président de la République de Turquie de 1923 à 1938. Héros national lors de la Bataille des Dardanelles, refusant la défaite et l’écroulement consécutifs à la fin de l’Empire Ottoman et de ses positions durant la 1ère Guerre Mondiale, il défait successivement les armées étrangères et reçoit le titre de « Gazi » (« Le victorieux »). Il déplace la capitale d’Istanbul à Ankara et sa principale tâche va être d’occidentaliser le pays : la laïcité entre dans la constitution, l'islam n’étant plus considéré comme religion officielle, il remplace l’alphabet arabe par l’alphabet latin, il donne le droit de vote aux femmes. Sa position forte, le soutien indéfectible dont il dispose, lui permettent de renégocier le Traité de Sèvres (1920) favorable aux Arméniens, Kurdes et Grecs, le traité de Lausanne (1923) entérinant la plupart de ses exigences avec des conséquences majeures sur les populations concernées.

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