Kanji: 務. Radical: 力. Number of strokes: 11. Meaning: “ duty”. Pronunciation: ム、つと-める、つと-まるmu, tsuto-meru, tsuto-maru.

The level of the elites falls

By conserving themselves, the elites believe they are conserving everything they represent, but they never ask themselves if they are still elites, that is, if they are still fulfilling their duties. ... A society where prestige no longer corresponds exactly to the services rendered, where the ruling classes receive more from the community than they give it, is a society doomed to ruin. I have said over and over again for twenty years that the universal crisis we are threatened to perish from is a crisis of the elites: the level of the revolution rises because the level of the elites falls.


En se conservant, les élites croient conserver tout ce qu’elles représentent, mais elles ne se demandent jamais si elles sont encore des élites, c’est-à-dire si elles en remplissent les devoirs. [...] Une société où le prestige ne correspond plus exactement aux services rendus, où les classes dirigeantes reçoivent plus de la communauté qu'elles ne lui donnent, est une société vouée à la ruine. J’ai dit, redit, répété depuis vingt ans que la crise universelle dont nous sommes menacés de périr était une crise des élites : le niveau de la révolution monte parce que le niveau des élites descend.

- Le Chemin de la Croix-des-Âmes (1940)

devoir

Faire, agir en fonction d’une obligation donnée, plus ou moins contrainte, d’ordre moral, affectif, juridique, économique, etc.

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Purusharthas

In Hinduism, the goals of humankind are known as Purusharthas: Artha: Wealth; Kama: Desire ; Dharma: Righteousness, Duty; Moksha: Liberation. They are said to be revolving around Varnashrama (4 Stages of human life): Brahmacharya – Student phase of life; Grihastha – Married phase of life and duties of maintaining a Householder; Vanaprastha – Retirement phase, handing over responsibilities to next generation; Sanyasa – Phase of giving up material desires and prejudices.

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