Kanji: 墳. Radical: 土. Number of strokes: 15. Meaning: “ tomb”. Pronunciation: フンfun.


Endroit creusé dans le sol destiné à recevoir le cercueil (ou le cadavre), faisant l’objet d’un aménagement diversement élaboré et sur lequel on est appelé à se recueillir.

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Kofun 古墳 “ancient grave”
Megalithic tombs in Japan
From 3rd to 7th century CE
Many of them have distinctive keyhole-shaped mounds

Mozu Tombs 百舌鳥古墳群
UNESCO World Heritage Site
a group of megalithic tombs in Sakai
Among which Daisenryo Kofun大仙陵古墳,
The largest kofun in Japan

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Dia de Muertos – Facilitating the return of the souls…

"... Families facilitate the return of the souls to Earth by laying flower petals, candles and offerings along the path leading from the cemetery to their homes. The deceased’s favourite dishes are prepared and placed around the home shrine and the tomb alongside flowers and typical handicrafts, such as paper cut-outs. Great care is taken with all aspects of the preparations, for it is believed that the dead are capable of bringing prosperity (e.g. an abundant maize harvest) or misfortune (e.g. illness, accidents, financial difficulties) upon their families depending on how satisfactorily the rituals are executed. The dead are divided into several categories according to cause of death, age, sex and, in some cases, profession. A specific day of worship, determined by these categories, is designated for each deceased person. This encounter between the living and the dead affirms the role of the individual within society and contributes to reinforcing the political and social status of Mexico’s indigenous communities.

The Day of the Dead celebration holds great significance in the life of Mexico’s indigenous communities. The fusion of pre-Hispanic religious rites and Catholic feasts brings together two universes, one marked by indigenous belief systems, the other by worldviews introduced by the Europeans in the sixteenth century." (source: ich.unesco.org)



Famadihana - A funerary tradition from the 17th century held in Madagascar once every seven years, said as the turning of the bones. By this tradition, the family members bring forth the corpses of their ancestors from the tombs, wrap them in fresh cloth and start dancing around before to the crypts.


Famadihana - Une tradition funéraire du XVIIe siècle, célébrée à Madagascar tous les sept ans, connue comme "le retournement des morts". Selon cette tradition, les membres de la famille sortent les cadavres de leurs ancêtres des tombes, les enveloppent dans un tissu propre et commencent à danser avant de les redéposer dans les cryptes.

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The town's ruins of Gondershe in Somalia, consist of coral stone houses, tombs and fortifications. (Somali lg, Arabic lg, Latin wr, Wadaad wr, Osmanya wr, Borama wr, Kaddare wr)

Les ruines de la ville de Gondershe en Somalie, se composent de maisons en pierre de corail, de tombes et de fortifications.

What is a castle? How to define it? From daimyo fortresses to medieval European castles, from Sardinian nuraghes to the walls of Hattousa, what place do fortified places hold in the history of human societies? How were they built? For what purpose? How were they inhabited? How did they evolve? (to be completed)

Qu’est-ce qu’un château ? Comment le définir ? Des forteresses des daimyo aux châteaux médiévaux européens, des nuraghes sardes aux murailles d’Hattousa, quelle place tiennent les lieux fortifiés dans l'histoire des sociétés humaines ? Comment ont-ils été bâtis ? À quelles fins ? Comment ont-ils été habités ? Quel fut leur évolution ?... (à compléter)

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