Kanji: 隷. Radical: 隶. Number of strokes: 16. Meaning: “ slave”. Pronunciation: レイrei.

Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Thirteenth amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865.
"Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

"Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."


Treizième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis

Le Treizième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis fut adopté par le Congrès le 6 décembre 1865.
« Section 1. Ni esclavage ni servitude involontaire, si ce n'est en punition d'un crime dont le coupable aura été dûment condamné, n'existeront aux États-Unis ni dans aucun des lieux soumis à leur juridiction. »

« Section 2. Le Congrès aura le pouvoir de donner effet au présent article par une législation appropriée. »

129/200possession

For centuries, Zanzibar has been an important place for the slave trade. (Arabic lg, Arabic wr, Swahili lg)


Durant des siècles, Zanzibar a été une place importante de commerce des esclaves.

What is a possession? Is it Belonging? Is it Giving? How were the idea of property and wealth built up? What possessions have been obtained or granted? By whom? For whose benefit? To the detriment of whom? What was the importance of the donation? of the loan? According to what rules? How was the inheritance regulated? To whom did the wealth benefit? According to what rights? Can it be better shared? How can the various forms of poverty be combated? What are the contexts of development and the consequences of poverty? In the digital world who (actually) owns what? What are the new ways of sharing and giving? What is the relationship to intellectual property?... (to be completed)

Qu’est–ce que posséder ? appartenir ? donner ? Comment s’est constituée l’idée de la propriété ? de la richesse ? Quelles possessions ont été obtenues ou accordées ? Par qui ? Au profit de qui ? Au détriment de qui ? Quelle fut l’importance du don ? du prêt ? Selon quelles règles ? Comment a–t–on régulé l’héritage ? À qui profitent les richesses ? Selon quels droits ? Peut–on en assurer un meilleur partage ? Comment combattre les diverses formes de pauvreté ? Quels sont les contextes de développement et les conséquences de la misère ? Dans le numérique qui possède (réellement) quoi ? Quelles sont les nouvelles voies du partage et du don ? Quelle relation a–t–on à la propriété intellectuelle ?... (à compléter)

Tromelin Island – The forgotten slaves

“In 1761 a French ship was ferrying around 160 slaves out of Madagascar... While slavery was legal at the time, the captain was not approved as a slaver and so was likely trying to finish his illicit slave deal quickly (…) They ran into the reef surrounding Tromelin Island while trying to navigate it in the dark (…) Some 60 of the slaves were able to swim to safety. Using the wrecked debris from the ship, two camps were made, one for the crew and one for the slaves. Eventually, the crew men sailed back to Madagascar, vowing to return for the slaves, but they must have gotten side-tracked as no one returned for 15 years. (…) They kept themselves alive by eating turtles and crabs that can to the island to nest. They built simple shelters by digging rooms into the ground and fortifying them with rocks. (…) When a rescue boat was finally sent to the island all those years later, only seven women and child less than a year old remained.” (atlasobscura.com)

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