Europa Εὐρώπη, King Agenor's daughter, abducted by Zeus...

Europe Εὐρώπη, fille du roi Agenor, enlevée par Zeus ...

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  • Dutch East India Company (VOC) - Documents

    “The VOC (…) was the largest of the early modern European trading companies operating in Asia. Its operations produced not only warehouses packed with spices, coffee, tea, textiles, porcelain and silk, but also shiploads of documents. Data on political, economic, cultural, religious, and social conditions spread over an enormous area circulated between the VOC establishments, the administrative centre of the trade in Batavia, now the city of Jakarta, and the Board of Directors in the Netherlands. The co-operation between the National Archives of Indonesia and the Netherlands resulted in this extensive catalogue of fifteen archives of VOC institutions in Jakarta. The VOC records are included in UNESCO´s Memory of the World Register.” Louisa Balk, Frans Van Dijk, Diederick Kortlang, Femme Gaastra, Hendrik Niemeijer and Pieter Koenders / The Archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the Local Institutions in Batavia (Jakarta) – 2007.

  • Conquistadores & chocolate

    Hernán Cortés discovers chocolate in 1519 that he brings back to Europe in 1528.

    Hernán Cortés découvre le chocolat en 1519 qu'il rapporte en Europe en 1528.

  • La Tène & the Celts

    Between the 5th and the 1st century BCE, during the La Tène period, the Celts spread their culture throughout Europe.

    Entre le Ve et le Ier siècle av. J.-C., durant l’époque dite de la Tène, les Celtes diffusent leur culture à travers l’Europe.

  • Gypsy Question

    By a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws - 1935, Gypsies were declared "enemies of the race-based state".
    “In 1936, Director Robert Ritter of the Center for Research on Racial Hygiene and Demographic Biology began to deal with the Nazis' "Gypsy Question." After interviewing and examining Roma subjects, Ritter concluded that the group had "degenerate" blood that made them a danger to German racial purity.” (source:
    “The genocide of the Roma began in earnest in December 1942 when SS commander Heinrich Himmler signed an order calling for all the Roma to be forced into concentration camps. Within a few years, the Nazis intended to exterminate every last one of the estimated 1 million Roma living in Europe.” (source: id)

  • First European universities

    The first European universities appear: Bologna (1088), Paris (1150) ... which will soon be followed by Oxford (1166), Salamanca (1218) ...

    Les premières universités européennes apparaissent : Bologne (1088), Paris (1150)… qui seront bientôt suivies d’Oxford (1166), Salamanque 1218)…

  • Dutch East India Company (VOC)

    Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC) - The first multinational corporation to operate officially in Europe, Asia, Africa … - Founded on March 20, 1602, the VOC was nationalised by the new Batavian Republic on 1796. It consisted of six Chambers (Dutch: Kamers) in: Amsterdam, Delft, Enkhuizen, Hoorn, Middelburg and Rotterdam. Its history and esp. its commercial conflicts, were closely connected to Dutch military conflicts around the world.

  • Battle of Mohacs

    At the battle of Mohacs (Hungary) in 1687, the expansion of the Turks in Europe was definitely stopped.

    A la bataille de Mohacs (Hongrie) en 1687, l’expansion des Turcs en Europe est définitivement stoppée.

  • Saint Petersburg

    Founded by Tsar Peter the Great in May 1703, who wanted to open a window to Europe in Russia, Saint Petersburg was the capital of the Russian Empire from the 18th to the 20th century.

    Fondée par le tsar Pierre le grand en mai 1703 qui voulait ainsi ouvrir en Russie « une fenêtre sur l’Europe », Saint-Pétersbourg fut la capitale de l’Empire russe du XVIIIe au XXe siècles.

  • Ankara - Capital of Turkey since 1923

    On 13 October 1923, Ankara was declared the capital of Turkey, in place of Istanbul… “After the First World War, a large part of the huge Ottoman Empire was occupied by the Entente powers (the Ottomans had lost the war). The Entente forces even occupied Istanbul, which was located at a position of extreme strategic importance – it linked the Black Sea with the Mediterranean, and Europe with Asia. Turkish politicians, including the famed Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, decided to move their seat of government to the town of Ankara, in the heart of Anatolia. Later the Entente powers withdrew their occupation troops, but Ankara remained the capital of the new Republic of Turkey.” (source:

  • Kanji – 欧

    Kanji: 欧. Radical: 欠. Number of strokes: 8. Meaning: “ Europe”. Pronunciation: オウō. Other form: 歐.

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