Treuhandanstalt

The Treuhandanstalt – German "Trust agency” or Treuhand - An agency established from 1990 to 1994 following the collapse of the German Democratic Republic, in order to privatize East German enterprises. While it played a decisive role in the drastic change which then occurred, it also faced severe criticisms: misuse and waste of funds, substantial protests from the workforces directly affected, close of businesses said to be profitable, etc. In 1994, its competencies were transferred to three agencies.

First war of the gulf

Iraq was at the origin of the war of Kuwait (or "first war of the gulf" as it was named from 2003) in 1990-1991 which resulted in the failure of its attempt against a coalition of 34 states.


L’Irak est à l’origine de la guerre du Koweit (ou "première guerre du golfe") en 1990-1991 qui se soldera par l’échec de sa tentative face à une coalition de 34 Etats.

Gorbachev’s perestroika

Driven by Gorbachev's perestroika, a wind of liberalization was blowing over the former Eastern bloc. The Berlin Wall crumbled in November 1989, heralding the reunification of Germany in 1990CE, and many consequences in the formerly so-called Eastern countries.


Entraîné par la perestroika de Gorbatchev, un vent de libéralisation souffle sur l’ancien bloc de l’Est. Le Mur de Berlin s’écroule en novembre 1989, augurant de la réunification de l’Allemagne en 1990, et de nombreuses conséquences dans les pays anciennement dits de l’Est.

Back to Top