Nagorno-Karabakh (Արցախ, Artsakh or Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ, Leṙnayin Gharabagh, the "Mountainous Gharabagh") - Self-proclaimed Republic of Transcaucasia declaring its independence in 1991 - Not recognized by the international community.


Haut-Karabagh (Արցախ, Artsakh ou Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ, Leṙnayin Gharabagh, soit le "Gharabagh montagneux") - République autoproclamée de Transcaucasie ayant déclaré son indépendance en 1991 - Non reconnue par la communauté internationale.


The KGB was from 1954 to 1991 the post-Stalinist political police of the USSR. It succeeds the MGB that was set up between 1946 to 1954. The initials refer to Komitet gossoudarstvennoï bezopasnosti, Committee for State Security.

Chechen Republic

Chechen Republic or Chechnya (Чече́нская Респу́блика Chechénskaya Respúblika / in Chechen: Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika) – After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was divided in 1991 between the Republic of Ingushetia and the Chechen Republic. Looking for its independence and after the First Chechen War (1994 - 1996), the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria was proclaimed. With the Second Chechen War (1999 - 2009), Russia restored its control. Mainly Muslims (Sufis, of either the Qadiri or Naqshbandi orders), the Chechens were converted to Islam between the 16th and the 19th centuries.

5 reasons for moving the Nigerian Capital in 1991

Many reasons have been advanced to comment the moving of the Nigerian Capital in 1991 from Lagos to Abuja: “(1) Central Location (…) as Lagos is located in the south western part of Nigeria (2) Security (…) It was necessary to choose a location where the president who also doubles as the commander in chief of the armed forces could strategise and not be caught unaware in the eventuality of an attack. (3) Economic/Political Factor (…) there was need to establish a political centre considering Nigeria’s foreign policy in Africa (4) Neutrality (…) Abuja does not belong to any region and no group or ethnicity can lay claim to it but it is considered the belonging of the whole country. (5) Planned City (…) By Independence, Lagos had grown in its own way unplanned way and the need arose to establish a city whose road network, business district, recreational centre, drainage system, etc. would be planned beforehand.” (source:

First war of the gulf

Iraq was at the origin of the war of Kuwait (or "first war of the gulf" as it was named from 2003) in 1990-1991 which resulted in the failure of its attempt against a coalition of 34 states.

L’Irak est à l’origine de la guerre du Koweit (ou "première guerre du golfe") en 1990-1991 qui se soldera par l’échec de sa tentative face à une coalition de 34 Etats.

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