Umrah

(عُمْرَة) An Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca that can be undertaken at any time of the year. Sometimes considered the “lesser pilgrimage” compared to the Hajj, because not compulsory, but still highly recommended. Etym. lit. “to visit a populated place”.

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halal

Refers to what is permissible in traditional Islamic law, esp. food and drinks. (حلال‎ meaning "permissible")


halal

Se réfère à ce qui est autorisé par la loi islamique traditionnelle, en particulier la nourriture et les boissons. (حلال signifie "permissible")

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Hajj

(حَجّ) For Muslims around the world, an annual pilgrimage to Mecca, a mandatory religious duty (arkan) - Must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Ramadan

Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, "holy month par excellence," during which the Qur'an began to be revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. It is the month of fasting (or saum ), one of the five pillars of Islam.

arkan

Known as the Five Pillars of Islam, these are the foundations of religious practice for many Muslims (Sunnis, Shiites except for some minorities and with more or less important adaptations). They include: the Shahada (the attestation of faith), the five daily prayers (As-salaat), almsgiving to the poor (Az-zakaat), the fast of the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca (Al hajj). Each pillar must be considered in relation to a number of obligations relating to the believer's existence.


arkan

Connus sous le nom des cinq piliers de l'Islam, ce sont des fondements de la pratique religieuse pour de nombreux Musulmans (Sunnites, Chiites à l'exception de quelques minorités et selon des adaptations plus ou moins importantes). Ils comprennent : la chahada (l'attestation de foi), les cinq prières quotidiennes (As-salaat), l'aumône aux pauvres (Az-zakaat), le jeûne du mois de ramadan et le pèlerinage à La Mecque (Al hajj). Chaque pilier doit être considéré par rapport à un certain nombre d'obligations relatives à l'existence du croyant.

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Alevism – A branch of Shi’a Islam in Turkey and the Balkans

Alevism is a branch of Shi’a Islam that is practiced in Turkey and the Balkans among ethnic Turks and Kurds, and is related to—though distinct from—Alawism in Syria. Alevis make up 20% of Turkish Muslims and comprise Turkey’s largest religious minority community. Alevism emerged in Turkey during the 10th century. (…) Alevism is also strongly influenced by Sufism, and maintains close connections with the Safavi and later Bektashi Sufi orders, and its organization closely mirrors Sufi brotherhoods, led by dedes instead of a Sufi sheikh. However, Turkish Alevism also contains traces of Buddhism, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism and Shamanism and rejects some basic tenets considered to be normative in Islam, such as the pilgrimage to Mecca, the five daily prayers, and fasting during Ramadan. Alevis gather for religious services in cemevis instead of mosques, which are not recognized by the Turkish government.

- THE RELIGIOUS LITERACY PROJECT (rlp.hds.harvard.edu)
Umayyads

Umayyads

Umayyads الأمويون or The Banu Umayya بَنُو أُمَيَّة‎ – The first hereditary and ruling family of the caliphate between 661 and 750 – Its capital was Damascus in Syria – When the Abbasid Revolution overthrew them, some of them who escaped founded the Umayyad Emirate (then Caliphate) of Córdoba between 756 and 1031.


Omeyyades الأمويون - Première dynastie héréditaire et dirigeante du califat ayant régné entre 661 et 750 - Sa capitale était Damas en Syrie - Lorsque la révolution abbasside les renversa, certains d'entre eux s'échappèrent pour fonder l’Emirat puis le Caliphat omeyyade de Cordoue entre 756 et 1031 .

Tanzimat

Tanzimat تنظيمات meaning 'Reorganization' - A period of reform and modernization in the Ottoman Empire from 1839 to 1876. Some reforms intended to emancipate the empire's dhimmis and to improve civil liberties, with consequences on the army, the banking system or he decriminalization of homosexuality within the framework of Islam.

Salafism

Salafi movement or Salafism - A reform branch of Sunni Islam referring to the salaf, the first three generations of Muslims, which rooted roots in the 18th-century Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia, and emerged in the late 19th century in Al-Azhar Mosque in Egypt to oppose Western European imperialism. Supporting the Shariah, they reject innovations (bid'ah) and may be classified between quietists (avoiding politics), activists invested in political matters, and jihadists advocating armed struggle.

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (1844 –1885) - A Sudanese religious leader proclaimed the Mahdi by his disciples. After his success against Ottoman-Egyptian and over the British armies, he created a vast Islamic state from the Red Sea to Central Africa. His supporters were the Ansars. At his death, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad ruled as Khalifa. By 1899, the Mahdist state was finally defeated during the Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan.

Majlis

Majlis

Majlis مجلس‎ - A place and/or institution for an administrative, social or religious assembly in Islamic countries. Etym. a 'sitting room'.


Majlis مجلس‎ - Un lieu et/ou une institution pour une assemblée administrative, sociale ou religieuse dans les pays musulmans. Etym. un « lieu où l’on s’assoie. »

Jeddah Gate to Makkah

Jeddah Gate to Makkah

Al-Balad - Historical area of Jeddah, founded in the 7th century - Gate to Makkah - UNESCO World Heritage Site 2014 - “… Historic Jeddah is situated on the eastern shore of the Red Sea. From the 7th century AD it was established as a major port for Indian Ocean trade routes, channelling goods to Mecca. It was also the gateway for Muslim pilgrims to Mecca who arrived by sea. These twin roles saw the city develop into a thriving multicultural centre, characterized by a distinctive architectural tradition, including tower houses built in the late 19th century by the city’s mercantile elites, and combining Red Sea coastal coral building traditions with influences and crafts from along the trade routes.”


Al-Balad - Zone historique de Djeddah, fondée au 7ème siècle - Porte de la Mecque - Site du patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO 2014 - « … Sur la rive orientale de la mer Rouge, Djedda a été à partir du VIIe siècle l’un des ports les plus importants sur les routes commerciales de l’océan Indien. C’est ici qu’arrivaient les marchandises à destination de La Mecque. C’était aussi le port d’arrivée pour les pèlerins voyageant par la mer. Ce double rôle a permis le développement d’une ville multiculturelle, caractérisée par une tradition architecturale originale, née de la fusion des traditions de construction en corail de la région côtière de la mer Rouge avec des idées et savoir-faire glanés le long des routes commerciales. Au XIXe siècle, les élites marchandes y ont notamment bâti de superbes maisons-tours. »

Islam

Monotheistic religion born in Arabia, revealed to the Prophet Mohammed, divided into various branches (Sunnism, Shiism, Kharidjism ...), and whose sacred text is the Koran.


Islam

Religion monothéiste née en Arabie, révélée au prophète Mohammed, divisée en diverses branches (Sunnisme, Chiisme, Kharidjisme...), et dont le texte sacré est le Coran.

Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia Αγία Σοφία – Located in present Istanbul, Turkey – A Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal cathedral, built in CE 537, the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople – Considered as an engineering marvel of its time - Converted into a mosque by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 – Became a museum in 1935. UNESCO World Heritage Site – 1985. Converted again to a mosque in 2020.


Hagia Sophia Αγία Σοφία – Auj. situés à Istanbul en Turquie - Cathédrale chrétienne orthodoxe grecque construite en l'an 537 après J.-C., siège du patriarcat œcuménique de Constantinople - Considérée comme une merveille technique de son temps – Convertie en mosquée par l'Empire Ottoman en 1453 – Devenue musée en 1935 – Patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO – 1985. Reconverti en mosquée en 2020.

Ansar Dine

Ansar Dine or Ansar Eddine (أنصار الدين, ʾAnṣār ad-Dīn) - A militant Salafist and Jihadist group founded in 2012 and led by Iyad Ag Ghaly, a leader of the Tuareg Rebellion (1990–1995) and the cousin of AQIM commander, Hamada Ag Hama. Its main objective is to impose strict Sharia law across Mali.

Abbasids

Abbasids

Abbasids ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ - Dynasty of caliphs which owes its name to Abbas, uncle of the prophet Mohammed. They overthrew the Umayyads in 750 and settle in Baghdad in 762.


Abbassides ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ - Dynastie de califes qui doit son nom à Abbas, oncle du prophète Mohammed. Ils renversent les Omeyyades en 750 et s’installent à Bagdad en 762.

Mohamed Morsi President of Egypt

In Egypt, Hosni Mubarak was overthrown in 2011CE. Mohamed Morsi, from the ranks of the Muslim Brotherhood, became president in 2012, and was himself overthrown in 2013.


En Egypte, Hosni Moubarak est renversé en 2011. Mohamed Morsi, issu des rangs des Frères musulmans, devient président en 2012, et en est écarté en 2013.

Almoravids

The Almoravid dynasty ⵉⵎⵔⴰⴱⴹⵏ (Imrabḍen) المرابطون‎ (Al-Murābiṭūn) is an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty from 1040 to 1147, centered in Morocco and spreading over the Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Capital: Marrakesh.


La dynastie almoravide ⵉⵎⵔⴰⴱⴹⵏ (Imrabḍen) المرابطون (Al-Murābiṭūn) est une dynastie impériale berbère musulmane de 1040 à 1147, centrée sur le Maroc et s'étendant sur le Maghreb et Al-Andalus. Capitale: Marrakech.

Arabic wr

Arabic wr

Name: al-abjadīyah al-ʻarabīyah

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Arab

Direction: right to left

Creation: Successor to the Nabataean or Syriac alphabet - Oldest Text dated 512.

Complements: Originally, the Arabic alphabet is an abjad (it only notes consonants) - Vowel notation systems were used from the 7th century onwards. / It was the writing of the Koran that benefited from the expansion of Islam / A distinction is made between kufic (angular) and cursive (rounded) writing. Many styles depend on it. / Calligraphic styles occurred: Kufic, Naskhi, thuluth, Farsi, Maghrebi, etc. / The letters change shape depending on whether they are isolated, at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word /

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