Tifinagh wr

Tifinagh wr

Name: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Tfng

Direction: bottom up, right to left, left to right

Creation: 3rd century B.C. (or earlier according to certain hypotheses) in connection with the Lybico-Berber writings

Complements: There are several Tifinagh alphabets related to the different languages transcribed.

Greek wr

Greek wr

Name: ἑλληνικός ἀλφάβητος hellēnikós alphábētos / ελληνικό αλφάβητο ellinikó alfávito

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Gre

Direction: left to right

Creation: Late 9th and early 7th B.C. from Phoenician - Cadmos, son of Agenor (king of Tyre in Phoenicia) and Telephassa, legendary founder of the city of Thebes. / Homer mentions a Greek script when he recounts the legend of Bellerophon in the Iliad between 85O and 75O BC.

Complements: The Greeks were inspired by the Phoenician alphabet to create their script. They adapted it to their language by inventing vowels. Revolutionary invention since it is the first writing to note the vowels. However, they did not add letters, in fact, they used the Phoenician letters by giving them a new phonetic value. For example, the Phoenician consonant aleph became the Greek vowel alpha, keeping its basic form and Phoenician name.

Sogdian wr

Systeme: alphabet

Direction: right to left - then in columns from left to right

Creation: approx. 100 (from Syriac) / 312 - 313 (Dunhuang)

Complements: Three styles exist: ancient Sogdian (non-cursive), Buddhist sutra writing, Uyghur cursive writing / Used in particular for Buddhist, Manichaean or Christian transcriptions.

Ajdir’s speech

Ajdir's speech (ⵉⵏⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵓⵊⴷⵉⵔ) was delivered by King Mohammed VI in Ajdir Izayane in 2001. It marks the recognition of the Amazigh component in the Moroccan multicultural context.
"Article 1: An institution called the Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture -IRCAM- is hereby established under the authority of Our Cherifian Majesty and under our tutelary protection, with full legal capacity, financial autonomy (...). »
"Article 2: The Institute, seized by Our Majesty for this purpose, shall advise us on measures likely to safeguard and promote Amazigh culture in all its expressions. »


Discours d'Ajdir

Le discours d'Ajdir (ⵉⵏⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵓⵊⴷⵉⵔ) a été prononcé par le roi Mohammed VI à Ajdir Izayane en 2001. Il marque la reconnaissance de la composante amazighe dans le contexte pluriculturel marocain
« Article 1 : Il est créé, auprès de Notre Majesté Chérifienne et sous notre protection tutélaire une institution dénommée Institut Royal de la culture amazighe, -IRCAM- dotée de la pleine capacité juridique, de l'autonomie financière (…). »
« Article 2 : L'Institut, saisi par Notre Majesté à cette fin, nous donne avis sur les mesures de nature à sauvegarder et à promouvoir la culture amazighe dans toutes ses expressions. »

Cyrillic wr

Cyrillic wr

Name: Кириллица

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Cyrl

Direction: left to right

Creation: End of the 9th century in Bulgaria / The monks and brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius created the precursor of the Cyrillic writing known as Glagolitic. Their followers, including Clement of Ohrid, the first archbishop of Bulgaria, simplified and renamed it: "Cyrillic".

Complements: Lower case is the same as upper case. Third official alphabet of the European Union with Latin and Greek.

Lao wr

Lao wr

Name: Akson Lao ອັກສອນລາວ

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Laoo

Direction: left to right

Creation: In the 14th century, shortly after 1354 / Pha Lak Pha Lam, according to the epic of the Ramayana, dating back about 900 years.

Complements: No distinction between lower and upper case letters.

Antaeus’s life and legend

"The legends surrounding the life of this invincible giant say that he lived in Libya, while others say that he lived in Morocco, and more precisely in Tangier. However, most accounts of Antaeus suggest that he was the son of Poseidon, the god of the sea, earthquakes, storms and horses in Greek myths and religions, and of Gaia, also known as Mother Earth, who is said to be the "maternal ancestor of the divine races".
In addition to residing in Morocco, the myth of this Greek giant is deeply linked to the kingdom. "He was the husband of the Amazigh goddess Tinjis", who was behind the name Tangier. Anteus is best known for his legendary battle against Hercules, the divine Greek hero and son of Zeus. In his book "Morocco Footprint Handbook" (Editions Footprint travel guides, 2012), Julius Honnor reports that in Roman mythology, Anteus is regarded as the giant who defied Hercules."


« Les légendes entourant la vie de cet invincible géant disent qu'il a vécu en Libye, alors que d'autres affirment qu'il résidait au Maroc, et plus précisément à Tanger. Cependant, la plupart des récits relatifs à Antée suggèrent qu'il était le fils de Poséidon, le dieu de la mer, des tremblements de terre, des tempêtes et des chevaux dans les mythes et religions grecques et de Gaia, également connue sous le nom de Terre-mère et qui serait notamment l’«ancêtre maternelle des races divines».
En plus de résider au Maroc, le mythe de ce géant grec est profondément lié au royaume. «Il était le mari de la déesse amazigh Tinjis», qui était derrière le nom de Tanger. Antée est surtout connu pour son combat légendaire contre Hercule, le divin héros grec et fils de Zeus.
Dans son livre «Morocco Footprint Handbook» (Editions Footprint travel guides, 2012), Julius Honnor rapporte que dans la mythologie romaine, Antée est considéré comme le géant qui a défié Hercule.. » (yabiladi.com)

Almoravids

The Almoravid dynasty ⵉⵎⵔⴰⴱⴹⵏ (Imrabḍen) المرابطون‎ (Al-Murābiṭūn) is an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty from 1040 to 1147, centered in Morocco and spreading over the Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Capital: Marrakesh.


La dynastie almoravide ⵉⵎⵔⴰⴱⴹⵏ (Imrabḍen) المرابطون (Al-Murābiṭūn) est une dynastie impériale berbère musulmane de 1040 à 1147, centrée sur le Maroc et s'étendant sur le Maghreb et Al-Andalus. Capitale: Marrakech.

Arabic wr

Arabic wr

Name: al-abjadīyah al-ʻarabīyah

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Arab

Direction: right to left

Creation: Successor to the Nabataean or Syriac alphabet - Oldest Text dated 512.

Complements: Originally, the Arabic alphabet is an abjad (it only notes consonants) - Vowel notation systems were used from the 7th century onwards. / It was the writing of the Koran that benefited from the expansion of Islam / A distinction is made between kufic (angular) and cursive (rounded) writing. Many styles depend on it. / Calligraphic styles occurred: Kufic, Naskhi, thuluth, Farsi, Maghrebi, etc. / The letters change shape depending on whether they are isolated, at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word /

Armenian wr

Armenian wr

Name: Հայոց այբուբեն, Hayots' aybuben

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Armn

Direction: left to right

Creation: Saint Mesrop Mashtots(362 - 440) Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց considered to be one of the greatest men in Armenian history. The first text consisted of the translation of the Bible into Armenian beginning with Proverbs.

Complements: The creation of writing gave rise to the development of a written language, called Grabar գրաբար, which ceased to be practiced in the 19th century with the exception of the liturgy. There is a capital writing called Erkat'agir or "iron letters" (which was the first) and a tiny writing called Bolorgir. E.g. "Զ" (capital) and "զ" (min.) [za]. There is also a third form of writing, cursive, called Notrgir, i.e. "notary's handwriting".

Agadir

Agadir (ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ / أݣادير ) - or Agadir Irir is the capital of the Souss-Massa region and the prefecture of Agadir Ida-U-Tanan in Morocco. Two main languages are spoken there: Tashelhiyt and Darija. The city owes its name to the agadir, the traditional Amazigh granary.


Agadir

Agadir (ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ / أݣادير ) - ou Agadir Irir est le chef-lieu de la région Souss-Massa et de la préfecture d'Agadir Ida-U-Tanan au Maroc. Deux langues principales y sont parlées : le berbère-tachelhit et le darija. La ville doit son nom à l’agadir, grenier traditionnel amazigh.

Tuareg

The Tuaregs are a branch of the Berber population (Imazighen), mainly nomadic and located in the central Sahara and its surroundings. They practice Berber languages ​​and use the tifinagh script.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) was the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938. A national hero at the Battle of the Dardanelles, refusing the defeat and collapse that followed the end of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, he successively defeated foreign armies and was awarded the title of "Gazi" ("The Victorious"). He moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara and his main task was to westernize the country: secularism entered the constitution, Islam no longer being considered the official religion, he replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet and gave women the right to vote. Hisstrong position and unfailing support enabled him to renegotiate the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was in favour of Armenians, Kurds and Greeks, the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) ratifying most of his demands with major consequences for the populations concerned.


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) est le fondateur et le premier président de la République de Turquie de 1923 à 1938. Héros national lors de la Bataille des Dardanelles, refusant la défaite et l’écroulement consécutifs à la fin de l’Empire Ottoman et de ses positions durant la 1ère Guerre Mondiale, il défait successivement les armées étrangères et reçoit le titre de « Gazi » (« Le victorieux »). Il déplace la capitale d’Istanbul à Ankara et sa principale tâche va être d’occidentaliser le pays : la laïcité entre dans la constitution, l'islam n’étant plus considéré comme religion officielle, il remplace l’alphabet arabe par l’alphabet latin, il donne le droit de vote aux femmes. Sa position forte, le soutien indéfectible dont il dispose, lui permettent de renégocier le Traité de Sèvres (1920) favorable aux Arméniens, Kurdes et Grecs, le traité de Lausanne (1923) entérinant la plupart de ses exigences avec des conséquences majeures sur les populations concernées.

Latin wr

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Latn

Direction: right to left, in boustrophedon, then left to right

Creation: First origins as early as the 6th century B.C.E. - Inspired by the Greek and Etruscan alphabets. / The oldest works in Latin would be the plays of Plautus, dated from the 3rd century BC.

Complements: In capitals (large letters) and lower case (known as Carolingian).

Tamazight TV

Tamazight TV

Tamazight TV (ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ) is a Moroccan public television channel opened in 2010, whose mission is to promote Amazigh culture in Morocco and North Africa.


Tamazight TV

Tamazight TV (ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ) est une chaîne de télévision publique marocaine ouverte en 2010, dont la mission est de promouvoir la culture amazighe au Maroc et Afrique du Nord.

Ircam

Ircam

The Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture (ⴰⴳⴻⵍⴷⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ - Asinag Ageldan n Tussna Tamazight) is responsible in Morocco for the promotion of Amazigh culture and languages.


Ircam

L’Institut royal de la culture amazighe (ⴰⴳⴻⵍⴷⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ - Asinag Ageldan n Tussna Tamazight) est chargé au Maroc de la promotion de la culture et des langues amazighes.

Yennayer


Yennayer

Yennayer ⴰⵙⴻⴳⴳⴰⵙ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ - Amazigh New Year (gen. 14 January, sometimes 13 or 12). ETYM Berber form of “January” meaning “month-one”.


Yennayer ⴰⵙⴻⴳⴳⴰⵙ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ - Nouvel An Amazigh (gén. Le 14 janvier, parfois 13 ou 12). ETYM Forme berbère de « janvier » signifiant «premier mois».

Korean wr

Korean wr

Name: 한글 Hangul (Hangeul) in South Korea - 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Hang

Direction: left to right

Creation: At the request of King Sejong (1397-1450) / The Song of the Dragons Flying in the Sky" (yongbi ŏch 'ŏnga) (1445)

Complements: Note some differences in handwriting between North and South Korea - among these are the different lettering, the different names of some consonants, the prohibition of introducing Western names into North Korea, etc.. / The three basic vowels have a symbolic meaning: the horizontal line indicates the earth (Yin principle), the dot indicates the sky (Yang principle) and according to Chinese tradition, the vertical line representing human being guarantees the link between earth and sky. / There is a day of remembrance of the Hangul, the first edition of which dates back to 1926, and which today is October 9 in South Korea and January 15 in North Korea.

Mongolian wr

Mongolian wr

Name: Mongol bichig

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Mong

Direction: vertical from left to right

Creation: Adapted from the Uyghur alphabet by Lama Schagkia Pandida for the dissemination of Buddhist texts in Mongolian.

Complements: (as in Arabic) The letters change shape depending on whether they are isolated, initial, median or final.

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