Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) was the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938. A national hero at the Battle of the Dardanelles, refusing the defeat and collapse that followed the end of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, he successively defeated foreign armies and was awarded the title of "Gazi" ("The Victorious"). He moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara and his main task was to westernize the country: secularism entered the constitution, Islam no longer being considered the official religion, he replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet and gave women the right to vote. Hisstrong position and unfailing support enabled him to renegotiate the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was in favour of Armenians, Kurds and Greeks, the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) ratifying most of his demands with major consequences for the populations concerned.


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) est le fondateur et le premier président de la République de Turquie de 1923 à 1938. Héros national lors de la Bataille des Dardanelles, refusant la défaite et l’écroulement consécutifs à la fin de l’Empire Ottoman et de ses positions durant la 1ère Guerre Mondiale, il défait successivement les armées étrangères et reçoit le titre de « Gazi » (« Le victorieux »). Il déplace la capitale d’Istanbul à Ankara et sa principale tâche va être d’occidentaliser le pays : la laïcité entre dans la constitution, l'islam n’étant plus considéré comme religion officielle, il remplace l’alphabet arabe par l’alphabet latin, il donne le droit de vote aux femmes. Sa position forte, le soutien indéfectible dont il dispose, lui permettent de renégocier le Traité de Sèvres (1920) favorable aux Arméniens, Kurdes et Grecs, le traité de Lausanne (1923) entérinant la plupart de ses exigences avec des conséquences majeures sur les populations concernées.

Tifinagh wr

Tifinagh wr

Name: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Tfng

Direction: bottom up, right to left, left to right

Creation: 3rd century B.C. (or earlier according to certain hypotheses) in connection with the Lybico-Berber writings

Complements: There are several Tifinagh alphabets related to the different languages transcribed.

Sogdian wr

Systeme: alphabet

Direction: right to left - then in columns from left to right

Creation: approx. 100 (from Syriac) / 312 - 313 (Dunhuang)

Complements: Three styles exist: ancient Sogdian (non-cursive), Buddhist sutra writing, Uyghur cursive writing / Used in particular for Buddhist, Manichean or Christian transcriptions.

Lao wr

Lao wr

Name: Akson Lao ອັກສອນລາວ

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Laoo

Direction: left to right

Creation: In the 14th century, shortly after 1354 / Pha Lak Pha Lam, according to the epic of the Ramayana, dating back about 900 years.

Complements: No distinction between lower and upper case letters.

Latin wr

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Latn

Direction: right to left, in boustrophedon, then left to right

Creation: First origins as early as the 6th century B.C.E. - Inspired by the Greek and Etruscan alphabets. / The oldest works in Latin would be the plays of Plautus, dated from the 3rd century BC.

Complements: In capitals (large letters) and lower case (known as Carolingian).

Mongolian wr

Mongolian wr

Name: Mongol bichig

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Mong

Direction: vertical from left to right

Creation: Adapted from the Uyghur alphabet by Lama Schagkia Pandida for the dissemination of Buddhist texts in Mongolian.

Complements: (as in Arabic) The letters change shape depending on whether they are isolated, initial, median or final.

Greek wr

Greek wr

Name: ἑλληνικός ἀλφάβητος hellēnikós alphábētos / ελληνικό αλφάβητο ellinikó alfávito

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Gre

Direction: left to right

Creation: Late 9th and early 7th B.C. from Phoenician - Cadmos, son of Agenor (king of Tyre in Phoenicia) and Telephassa, legendary founder of the city of Thebes. / Homer mentions a Greek script when he recounts the legend of Bellerophon in the Iliad between 85O and 75O BC.

Complements: The Greeks were inspired by the Phoenician alphabet to create their script. They adapted it to their language by inventing vowels. Revolutionary invention since it is the first writing to note the vowels. However, they did not add letters, in fact, they used the Phoenician letters by giving them a new phonetic value. For example, the Phoenician consonant aleph became the Greek vowel alpha, keeping its basic form and Phoenician name.

Korean wr

Korean wr

Name: 한글 Hangul (Hangeul) in South Korea - 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Hang

Direction: left to right

Creation: At the request of King Sejong (1397-1450) / The Song of the Dragons Flying in the Sky" (yongbi ŏch 'ŏnga) (1445)

Complements: Note some differences in handwriting between North and South Korea - among these are the different lettering, the different names of some consonants, the prohibition of introducing Western names into North Korea, etc.. / The three basic vowels have a symbolic meaning: the horizontal line indicates the earth (Yin principle), the dot indicates the sky (Yang principle) and according to Chinese tradition, the vertical line representing human being guarantees the link between earth and sky. / There is a day of remembrance of the Hangul, the first edition of which dates back to 1926, and which today is October 9 in South Korea and January 15 in North Korea.

Cyrillic wr

Cyrillic wr

Name: Кириллица

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Cyrl

Direction: left to right

Creation: End of the 9th century in Bulgaria / The monks and brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius created the precursor of the Cyrillic writing known as Glagolitic. Their followers, including Clement of Ohrid, the first archbishop of Bulgaria, simplified and renamed it: "Cyrillic".

Complements: Lower case is the same as upper case. Third official alphabet of the European Union with Latin and Greek.

Arabic wr

Arabic wr

Name: al-abjadīyah al-ʻarabīyah

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Arab

Direction: right to left

Creation: Successor to the Nabataean or Syriac alphabet - Oldest Text dated 512.

Complements: Originally, the Arabic alphabet is an abjad (it only notes consonants) - Vowel notation systems were used from the 7th century onwards. / It was the writing of the Koran that benefited from the expansion of Islam / A distinction is made between kufic (angular) and cursive (rounded) writing. Many styles depend on it. / Calligraphic styles occurred: Kufic, Naskhi, thuluth, Farsi, Maghrebi, etc. / The letters change shape depending on whether they are isolated, at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word /

Armenian wr

Armenian wr

Name: Հայոց այբուբեն, Hayots' aybuben

Systeme: alphabet

Code: Armn

Direction: left to right

Creation: Saint Mesrop Mashtots(362 - 440) Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց considered to be one of the greatest men in Armenian history. The first text consisted of the translation of the Bible into Armenian beginning with Proverbs.

Complements: The creation of writing gave rise to the development of a written language, called Grabar գրաբար, which ceased to be practiced in the 19th century with the exception of the liturgy. There is a capital writing called Erkat'agir or "iron letters" (which was the first) and a tiny writing called Bolorgir. E.g. "Զ" (capital) and "զ" (min.) [za]. There is also a third form of writing, cursive, called Notrgir, i.e. "notary's handwriting".

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