literature

Art of producing written works, some of them being selected by their time or those which succeed them as holders of a quality likely to justify their selection (more or less durable), in connection with the authors (known or sometimes unknown) who produced them, the conditions and reasons for this production, and the critical analysis that could be made of it - The literature of a country, of an era, provides a decisive lever for their understanding.


littérature

Art de produire des œuvres écrites dont certaines seront retenues par leur temps ou ceux qui leur succéderont comme détentrices d’une qualité susceptibles de justifier leur sélection (plus ou moins durable), en lien avec les auteurs (connus ou parfois inconnus) qui les ont produites, les conditions et motifs de cette production, et l’analyse critique qui a pu en être faite – La littérature d’un pays, d’une époque, fournit un levier décisif à leur compréhension.

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Virginia Woolf

Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf born Stephen (1882 – 1941) - An English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors, whose novels were of major influence on the genre because of their nonlinear approaches to narrative – Cofounder of the Bloomsbury Group.


Adeline Virginia Woolf, née Stephen (1882 - 1941) - Auteure anglaise, considérée comme l'une des plus important/es auteur/es modernistes du XXe siècle, dont les romans ont eu une influence majeure sur le genre en raison de leur approche non linéaire de la narration - Cofondateur du groupe de Bloomsbury.

Tyrtaeus

Tyrtaeus

Tyrtaeus Τυρταῖος - A Greek lyric poet – Famous for political and military elegies - It is said that by exhorting Spartans to support the state authorities and to fight bravely against the Messenians, he enabled them to get the upper hand.


Tyrtaeus Τυρταῖος - Un poète lyrique grec - Célèbre pour ses élégies politiques et militaires - Il exhorta les Spartiates à lutter courageusement contre les Messéniens, leur permettant de prendre le dessus.

Tale of the Heike

Tale of the Heike

Heike Monogatari 平家物語
An epic about the struggle between the Taira clan
And Minamoto clan
For control of Japan
In the Genpei War (1180–1185)

The sound of the Gion Shōja bells
Echoes the impermanence of all things

祇園精舎の鐘の聲、
諸行無常の響き有り。

Selma Lagerlof

Selma Lagerlof

Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf (1858 –1940) - A Swedish author and teacher – First woman to be wawarded Nobel Prize in Literature, 1909. Author of ‘The Wonderful Adventures of Nils’ (Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige).


Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf (1858 –1940) - Auteure et enseignante suédoise - Première femme à recevoir le prix Nobel de littérature, 1909. Auteur de «Le Merveilleux Voyage de Nils Holgersson à travers la Suède » (Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige).

Sappho

Sappho

Sappho Ψάπφω (c. 630 – c. 570 BCE) – A Greek lyric poet from Lesbos. Sometimes considered as the "Tenth Muse" and "The Poetess".


Sappho Ψάπφω (v. 630 - v. 570 av.J.-C.) - Une poétesse lyrique grecque originaire de Lesbos. Parfois considérée comme la « dixième muse » ou « la poétesse ».

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর (1861-1941) - A Bengali poet and musician.


Rabindranath Tagore রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর (1861-1941) - Poète et musicien bengali.

Popol Vuh

Popol Vuh

Popol Vuh – “Book of the Community” or “Book of Counsel” – A mythological text of Kʼicheʼ Maya people from the Guatemalan Highlands that recounts the origin of the universe, as well as mythology and history of the people.


Popol Vuh - « Livre de la communauté » ou « Livre du conseil » - Un texte mythologique du people maya quiche (habitant les hautes terres du Guatemala) qui raconte l’origine de l’univers, ainsi que la mythologie et l’histoire du peuple.

Odyssey

Odyssey - ( Ὀδύσσεια, Odýsseia) - A major ancient Greek epic poem attributed to Homer, partly a sequel to the Iliad, considered to have been composed by the end of the 8th century BC, narrating the journey back home of the Greek hero Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy.

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (1854 –1900) - An Irish poet and playwright. The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890) - The Importance of Being Earnest (1895) - The Ballad of Reading Gaol (1898) - Convicted and sentenced to two years' hard labour for homosexuality.


Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (1854 –1900) - Un poète et dramaturge irlandais. Le portrait de Dorian Gray (1890) - L'importance d'être constant (1895) - La Ballade de la geôle de Reading (1898) - Reconnu coupable et condamné à deux ans de travaux forcés pour homosexualité.

Matsuo Bashô

Matsuo Bashô

Matsuo Bashō 松尾 芭蕉
Greatest master of haiku 俳句
Or more precisely of hokku 発句, lit. "starting verse"
The name ‘haiku’ being given by another master
Masaoka Shiki 正岡 子規 (1867–1902)

Yosa Buson 与謝 蕪村and Kobayashi Issa 小林 一茶
Being the two others of four most famous ones

Matsuo Bashō (1644-1694)
Born 松尾 金作 in Ueno上野市, Iga Province伊賀国
Nowdays Mie Prefecture 三重

Kojiki & NihonShoki

Kojiki & NihonShoki

Kojiki 古事記, "Records of Ancient Matters" (711-712), the oldest chronicle in Japan... and Nihon Shoki 日本書紀, The “Chronicles of Japan” (720).


Kojiki 古事記, "Records of Ancient Matters" (711-712), la plus ancienne chronique du Japon ... et Nihon Shoki 日本書紀, Les "Chroniques du Japon" (720).

Kawabata Yasunari

Kawabata Yasunari

Yasunari Kawabata 川端 康成(1899 –1972)
Born in Osaka
Nobel Prize for Literature in 1968

For his Nobel lecture, he started by quoting Dogen (1200-1253)
“In the spring, cherry blossoms, in the summer the cuckoo.
In autumn the moon, and in winter the snow, clear, cold.”
“Japan, The Beautiful and Myself” 美しい日本の私―その序説

Iliad

(Ἰλιάς, Iliás, or Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) - An ancient Greek epic poem traditionally attributed to Homer dated to around the 8th century BC, and which refers to a few weeks during the Trojan War, while mentioning many of the Greek legends about the siege as well as earlier events.

Guru Granth Sahib

The Guru Granth Sahib is the holy book of Sikhism. It was developed in several phases of compilation from the beginning of the 17th century to the beginning of the following century. He succeeded the last guru of the community, Guru Gobind Singh, and became at his death in 1708, the only supreme authority.

Proposed by

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844 – 1900) – A German philosopher, poet, philologist. Human, All Too Human (1878) – Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883) – Ecce Homo (1888 - published in 1908).


Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844 - 1900) - Un philosophe, poète et philologue allemand. Humain, trop humain (1878) - Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra (1883) – Ecce Homo (1888 - publié en 1908).

Ella Maillart

Ella Maillart

Ella Maillart (1903 - 1997) - A Swiss adventurer, travel writer and photographer- She was also a sportswoman involved in different fields: land hockey, ski, sailing.


Ella Maillart (1903 - 1997) - Une aventurière, auteure et photographe suisse - Elle fut également une sportive impliquée dans différentes disciplines : hockey sur gazon, ski, voile.

Enuma Elish

Enuma Elish

Enûma Eliš or Enuma Elish – The Babylonian creation myth – Its composition probably dates to the late second-millennium BCE – Written in Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform script. “1 When the heavens above did not exist, 2 And earth beneath had not come into being — 3 There was Apsû, the first in order, their begetter, 4 And demiurge Tia-mat, who gave birth to them all… 5 They had mingled their waters together...”


Enuma Elish - Mythe babylonien de la Création - Sa composition date probablement de la fin du deuxième millénaire avant notre ère - Écrit en écriture cunéiforme sumero-akkadienne. « 1 Lorsqu'en haut le ciel n'était pas encore nommé, 2 Qu'en bas la terre n'avait pas de nom [ils n'existaient pas], 3 Seuls l'Apsū [l'océan d'eau douce] primordial qui engendra les dieux, 4 Et Tiamat [la mer] qui les enfanta tous, 5 Mêlaient leurs eaux en un tout. »

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri (c. 1265 – 1321) - an Italian poet – Author of the Divine Comedy (written from 1308 to 1320) depicting Hell, Purgatory and Heaven, the most important poem of the Middle Ages and literary work in the Italian language.


Dante Alighieri (c. 1265 - 1321) - Un poète italien - Auteur de la Divine Comédie illustrant l'Enfer, le Purgatoire et le Paradis, le plus important des poèmes du Moyen Âge et des œuvres littéraires en langue italienne.

Diamond Sûtra

Diamond Sûtra

Diamond Sûtra - A Mahâyâna sutra, found among the Dunhuang manuscripts, claiming non-abiding and non-attachment.


Sûtra du diamant

Le Sûtra du diamant - Un texte du bouddhisme Mahâyâna, trouvé parmi les manuscrits de Dunhuang, prônant le non-attachement.

Bloomsbury Group

Bloomsbury Group —or Bloomsbury Set - A group of English writers, intellectuals, philosophers and artists in the first half of the 20th century whose influence is acknowledged in literature, aesthetics, criticism, as well as in economics highlighting questions around feminism, pacifism or sexuality. Among the ten core members were: Clive Bell (art critic), Vanessa Bell (post-impressionist painter), E. M. Forster (fiction writer), Roger Fry (art critic and post-impressionist painter), Duncan Grant (post-impressionist painter), John Maynard Keynes (economist), Desmond MacCarthy (literary journalist), Lytton Strachey (biographer), Leonard Woolf (essayist and non-fiction writer) and Virginia Woolf (fiction writer and essayist)

Astrid Lindgren

Astrid Lindgren

Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren born Ericsson (1907 –2002) - A famous Swedish writer of fiction and screenplays for children – Mother of Pippi Longstocking, as well as Karlsson-on-the-Roof.


Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren, née Ericsson (1907 –2002) - Une célèbre auteure suédoise de fiction et de scénarios pour enfants - Mère de Fifi Brindacier, ainsi que de Karlsson på taket.

Alma Mahler

Alma Mahler

Alma Mahler or Alma Maria Mahler Gropius Werfel born Schindler (1879 – 1964) - A composer and author born in Austro-Hungarian Empire. Successively married to Gustav Mahler, Walter Gropius and Franz Werfel.


Alma Mahler ou Alma Maria Mahler Gropius Werfel née Schindler (1879 – 1964) - Compositrice et auteure née dans l'empire austro-hongrois. Mariée successivement à Gustav Mahler, Walter Gropius et Franz Werfel.

bài chòi

bài chòi

Bài chòi - Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2017 "... in Central Viet Nam is a diverse art combining music, poetry, acting, painting and literature."


bài chòi

Bài chòi - Patrimoine culturel immatériel de l'humanité 2017 "... un art diversifié mêlant musique, poésie, jeu d'acteur, peinture et littérature."

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