Rock carvings at Tanum

Rock carvings at Tanum

The rock carvings at Tanum… - UNESCO World Heritage Site 1994 “in the north of Bohuslän, revealing the life and beliefs of people in Europe during the Bronze Age …”

Les gravures rupestres de Tanum… - 1994, site du patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO « nord de Bohuslän, révélant la vie et les croyances des Européens à l'âge du bronze…»



Lalibela ላሊበላ- A city in Ethiopia (Amhara Region) famous for its rock-cut monolithic churches. World Heritage site 1978. “The 11 medieval monolithic cave churches of this 13th-century 'New Jerusalem' are situated in a mountainous region in the heart of Ethiopia near a traditional village with circular-shaped dwellings. Lalibela is a high place of Ethiopian Christianity, still today a place of pilmigrage and devotion.”

Lalibela ላሊበላ- Une ville d'Éthiopie (région d'Amhara) célèbre pour ses églises monolithiques taillées dans le roc. Patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO 1978. « Au cœur de l'Éthiopie, dans une région montagneuse, les onze églises monolithes médiévales de cette « nouvelle Jérusalem » du XIIIe siècle ont été creusées et taillées à même le roc près d'un village traditionnel aux maisons rondes. Lalibela est un haut lieu du christianisme éthiopien, lieu de pèlerinage et de dévotions. »

Etym. Cusco

Etym. Used in Quechua, but of Aymara origin, the term seems to refer to the “Rock of the Owl”. A legend attests that Ayar Awqa (Ayar Auca) acquired wings and flew towards the site of the future city - There he took the form of a rock in order to mark the possession of the land by his ayllu, his “Lineage”.

Etym. Utilisé en quechua, d’origine aymara, le terme renverrait au « Rocher du hibou »). Une légende atteste en effet que Ayar Awqa (Ayar Auca) aurait acquis des ailes et se serait envolé vers le site de la future ville – Là il aurait pris forme d’un rocher afin de marquer la possession de la terre par son ayllu, sa « lignée ».

5 Facts You Should Know about coltan by Melissa Pistilli

1. What is coltan? It’s where tantalum and niobium come from
“Coltan, or columbite tantalite, is an ore from which niobium and tantalum are extracted […] nearly 80 percent of the world’s niobium is used in high-strength, low-alloy steels, while tantalum is key for the world’s electronics industry.”
2. What is coltan? It provides the tantalum capacitors used in smartphones
“Roughly two-thirds of tantalum is used to manufacture electronic capacitors, a fundamental component of smartphones and other in-demand electronics.”
3. What is coltan? It is often mined by hand
“Coltan is often mined by hand by artisanal miners, with rock and sand being panned and filtered until the mineral sinks to the bottom. This process was common during the gold rush in the mid-1800s.”
4. What is coltan? It’s a conflict mineral
“Many investors are no doubt aware of tantalum’s conflict mineral status, so it should come as no surprise that coltan falls under the same banner.”
5. What is coltan? It’s harmful for gorillas
“Coltan mining has also caused significant destruction of gorilla habitats in the DRC […] been reduced as forests are cleared to make way for mining operations.”
( - Melissa Pistilli – 2020)

The name “Ararat” in the Bible

“The name “Ararat” is mentioned four times in the Bible’s original manuscripts (Genesis 8:4; 2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38; Jeremiah 51:27). This was the name of a country. On one of its mountains Noah’s ark rested after the Flood subsided (Genesis 8:4). Most researchers believe that the “mountains” mentioned were probably the Kurdish range of South Armenia in Turkey. In the King James Bible, 2 Kings 19:37 and Isaiah 37:38 translate the word “Ararat” as “Armenia.” However, other versions, including the New King James Version, simply say “land of Ararat.” […] In this area of modern Turkey, near the Russian and Iranian borders, there is a large mountain named Mount Ararat. It is made entirely of volcanic rock and is an extinct volcano that rose during Noah’s flood. The highest point is almost 17,000 feet above sea level, and the mountain consists of two peaks, Great Ararat and Little Ararat. It rises a majestic 14,000 feet from the plain of Aras (Araxes). The higher peak is perpetually covered in snow. […] It is believed that the land of “Ararat” is the Hebrew equivalent of Urardhu, or Urartu, which was the Assyrian-Babylonian name of the Vannic or Chaldean kingdom (between the Aras River and the Tigris River).” (



In Ethiopia, Lalibela (ላሊበላ) is famous for its rock-cut churches. (Ge’ez lg, Ge’ez wr, Amharic lg, Amharic wr)

En Éthiopie, Lalibela (ላሊበላ) est célèbre pour ses églises taillées dans le roc.

What is building? How to define it? Building the Forbidden City or the Angkor City, building the Chinguetti mansions or the shabono yanomami, how was knowledge and know-how mobilized everywhere to ensure its management? What materials were used? For what resistance and lifespan? What trades did architecture require and does it continue to train? How is digital technology called upon to intervene in construction?... (to be completed)

Qu’est-ce que construire ? Comment le définir ? Construire la Cité interdite ou celle d’Angkor, construire les demeures de Chinguetti ou le shabono yanomami, comment partout des savoirs et savoir-faire ont été mobilisés pour en assurer la conduite ? Quels matériaux ont été sollicités ? Pour quelle résistance et quelle durée de vie ? Quels métiers l’architecture a-t-elle nécessités et continue-t-elle de former ? Comment le numérique est-il appelé à intervenir dans la construction ?... (à compléter)

Back to Top