Pumpernickel - "Pumpernickel is a type of rye bread that is originally from Germany. The origin of the word is pretty entertaining: It's a German word that comes from pumpern, which means to break wind and Nickel, a take on the name Nicholas, which is associated with goblins or devilish characters. The word comes from the bread's "reputed indigestibility." So, the bread can be translated as the devil's fart, or something like that." (huffpost.com)

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Knäckebröd - "This flat and dry type of bread (or cracker), contains rye flour mainly and was for a long time considered as a poor man’s diet as they are light and keep fresh for a very long time. It has been baked in Central Sweden for 500 AD in its basic version. In the recent years, there has been a renewed interest in crispbread in the Nordics, and many different versions appeared, using different ingredients, type of flour or rolled oats, seeds and spices." (delscookingtwist.com)

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Disease which results from intoxication due to alkaloids originating in particular from ergot of rye (fungus). The result was a terrible plague in the Middle Ages, called “burning sickness”, or even “Saint Anthony fire”, people having the sensation of being devoured by unbearable burning (also called fire of Saint Martial, plague of fire, sacred fire, hell fire). Occasionally linked to witchcraft or demonic possession trials.


Maladie qui résulte d'une intoxication due à des alcaloïdes provenant notamment de l'ergot du seigle (champignon). A constitué au Moyen Âge un véritable fléau, nommé « mal des ardents », ou encore du « feu de Saint Antoine », les personnes atteintes ayant l'impression d'être dévorées par d’insupportables sensations de brûlures (on l’a également nommée feu de saint Martial, peste de feu, feu sacré, feu d'enfer). Fut occasionnellement liée à des procès pour sorcellerie ou possession démoniaque.

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