Calavera (Spanish "skull") - A decorated representation of a human skull from sugar (Alfeñiques) or clay used during the Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos) and All Souls' Day. Placed on altars (ofrendas). Steming from pre-Columbian rites, they sere representing rebirth into the next stage of life. A Mexican caricaturist, José Guadalupe Posada (1852 – 1913) is famous his Calaveras, and esp. for Catrina, which is said to be the personification of The Day of the Dead.

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Makemake in Rapa Nui…

“On Rapanui (Easter Island) people believed in a variety of god or 'atua' Most prominent among the 'atua' was the Creator God, Makemake, who was a 'birdman'. Makemake was born from a floating skull that was washed from a temple into the sea. He created the first humans. Together with his companion, the goddess Haua, he brought flocks of migratory seabirds to the island.
As well as the creator of mankind and Makemake was also regarded patron of the Bird Cult, the principal festival of Easter Island, and was worshipped in the form of sea birds, which were considered his incarnation. His material symbol, a man with a bird's head, can be found carved in hundreds of petroglyphs on Easter Island, human figures with the heads and tails of birds, into the rocks. He was the god of fertility and the chief god of the “Tangata manu” or bird-man cult (this cult succeeded the islands more famous Moai era, when the famous stone heads were carved).” (


Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens appears according to theories 200,000 years ago (or more recently) characterized by the development of the skull, the reduction of the canines, the occurrence of language and bipedal locomotion. Some support his appearance in several simultaneous locations of the planet (multi-centered hypothesis). Others see it as an evolution from Africa exclusively (monocentric assumption known as "Out of Africa").

L’homo sapiens apparaît selon les théories il y a 200000 ans (ou plus récemment) se caractérisant par le développement du crâne, la diminution des canines, la survenance du langage et une locomotion bipède. Certains penchent pour une apparition en plusieurs endroits simultanés de la planète (hypothèse pluricentrée). D’autres y voient plutôt une évolution depuis l’Afrique exclusivement (hypothèse monocentrée dite Out of Africa).

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