Yellow Emperor

Sovereign mythical (2697BCE - 2597BCE), founder of the ancient Chinese civilization, object of references and worship, quoted in the Memoirs of the historian Sima Qian as one of the 5 Emperors, as well as only in the Classic documents as one of the 3 Augustes. Has been deified, especially by Taoism.

Urartu

Urartu Ուրարտու - Kingdom constituted around the IX century BCE on the Armenian Highlands to resist Assyria - Ended in 609 BCE, succeeded by the Armenians - Its center was around Lake Van. (other name: Biainili).


Urartu

Urartu Ուրարտու - Royaume constitué vers le IX siècle av. J.-C. sur le haut-plateau arménien pour résister à l'Assyrie - Prendra fin en 609 av. J.-C. succédé par les Arméniens - Son centre se trouvait autour du lac de Van. (autre nom : Biaineli).

United States Electoral College

United States Electoral College - A body of (currently) 538 electors established by the Constitution, which every four years elects the president and vice president of the United States. After the election day (Tuesday after the first Monday of November), each state counts its popular votes designating presidential electors. They eventually meet in December in each state to cast their votes and the results are counted by Congress, and tabulated in the first week of January. The Electoral College system is debated.


Collège électoral des États-Unis

Collège électoral des États-Unis - Un corps de (actuellement) 538 électeurs établi par la Constitution, qui élit tous les quatre ans le président et le vice-président des États-Unis. Après le jour de l'élection (mardi après le premier lundi de novembre), chaque État compte ses votes populaires désignant les électeurs présidentiels. Ils se réunissent ensuite en décembre dans chaque État pour voter et les résultats sont dépouillés par le Congrès, puis compilés au cours de la première semaine de janvier. Le système du Collège électoral est débattu.

Tyrtaeus

Tyrtaeus

Tyrtaeus Τυρταῖος - A Greek lyric poet – Famous for political and military elegies - It is said that by exhorting Spartans to support the state authorities and to fight bravely against the Messenians, he enabled them to get the upper hand.


Tyrtaeus Τυρταῖος - Un poète lyrique grec - Célèbre pour ses élégies politiques et militaires - Il exhorta les Spartiates à lutter courageusement contre les Messéniens, leur permettant de prendre le dessus.

Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Thirteenth amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865.
"Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

"Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."


Treizième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis

Le Treizième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis fut adopté par le Congrès le 6 décembre 1865.
« Section 1. Ni esclavage ni servitude involontaire, si ce n'est en punition d'un crime dont le coupable aura été dûment condamné, n'existeront aux États-Unis ni dans aucun des lieux soumis à leur juridiction. »

« Section 2. Le Congrès aura le pouvoir de donner effet au présent article par une législation appropriée. »

Tanzimat

Tanzimat تنظيمات meaning 'Reorganization' - A period of reform and modernization in the Ottoman Empire from 1839 to 1876. Some reforms intended to emancipate the empire's dhimmis and to improve civil liberties, with consequences on the army, the banking system or he decriminalization of homosexuality within the framework of Islam.

Taliban

Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎, meaning “students”) - A Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement and military organisation mainly located in Afghanistan (and Pakistan) which held power in this country from 1996 to 2001 and were overthrown after the September 11 attacks. Their goal is to enforce a strict interpretation of Sharia waging war for reaching it.

Suleiman I

Suleiman I

Suleiman I (1494 – 1566) or Kanunî Sultan Süleyman (قانونى سلطان سليمان‎ "The Lawgiver Suleiman") or Suleiman the Magnificent - Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, at the apex its economic, military and political power.


Soliman Ier (1494 - 1566), Soliman le Magnifique ou le Législateur (قانونى سلطان سليمان‎) - Sultan de l'Empire Ottoman, au sommet de son pouvoir économique, militaire et politique.

Shinzo Abe

Shinzo Abe

Shinzo Abe 安倍 晋三 (1954-) – A Japanese politician known as a conservative, member of Nippon Kaigi, who was Prime Minister of Japan four terms and President of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) - The longest-serving Prime Minister in Japanese history. He resigned as Prime Minister twice due to ulcerative colitis, the last time in 2020. His economic policies were nicknamed Abenomics. He is the son of Shintaro Abe 安倍 晋太郎, (1924 – 1991) Japanese foreign minister, and grandson of Nobusuke Kishi 岸 信介 (1896 – 1987) known as the "Devil of Shōwa" who, after imprisonment, also became Prime Minister of Japan.

Shô Tai

Shô Tai

Shô Tai 尚泰 (1843 –1901) - The last king of the Ryukyu Kingdom before its annexation by Japan as Ryukyu Domain (later Okinawa Prefecture).


Shô Tai 尚泰 (1843 –1901) - Le dernier souverain du royaume de Ryukyu avant son annexion par le Japon (plus tard préfecture d'Okinawa).

Shāh Abbās the Great

Shāh Abbās the Great

Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (Persian: شاه عباس بزرگ) (1571 - 1629) - 5th Safavid Shah of Iran, considered the strongest - Under his leadership, important reforms were undertaken in the Iranian army, which helped him in his fight against the Ottomans and Uzbeks – Under his reign, the capital was moved from Qazvin to Isfahan, making the city the pinnacle of Safavid architecture.


Abbas Ier le Grand (persan : شاه عباس بزرگ ), (1571 - 1629) - Cinquième Chah safavide de l'Iran (1588-1629) considéré comme le plus marquant - Sous sa direction, d'importantes réformes ont été entreprises dans l'armée iranienne, ce qui l'a aidé dans sa lutte contre les Ottomans et les Ouzbeks - Sous son règne, la capitale a été déplacée de Qazvin à Ispahan, faisant de la ville le summum de l'architecture safavide.

Security Prison 21

Security Prison 21 (or S-21) – A former secondary school in Phnom Penh which was used as a prison by the Khmer Rouge regime, among 150 to 200 torture and execution centers. It was placed under the criminal authority of Kang Kek Iew កាំង ហ្គេកអ៊ាវ alias Comrade Duch (1942-2020). It became the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum. Etym. Tuol Sleng ទួលស្លែង means "Hill of the Poisonous Trees".

Sakamoto Ryōma

Sakamoto Ryōma

Sakamoto Ryōma 坂本龍馬 (1836 –1867)
Alias Saitani Umetarō 才谷梅太郎
First low-ranking samurai from Tosa Domain 土佐藩
He opposed the Tokugawa Shogunate 徳川幕府
After the end of sakoku 鎖国

Uniting forces against the Bakufu.
Assassinated in 1867 with Nakaoka Shintarō 中岡 慎太郎
Just before the Boshin War 戊辰戦争 and the Meiji Restoration

Saint Martial

(3rd century) Was called "the Apostle of the Gauls" or "the Apostle of Aquitaine" - Said to be the first bishop of Limoges. His feast day is June 30. “Bishop of Limoges in the third century. We have no accurate information as to the origin, dates of birth and death, or the acts of this bishop. All that we know of him we have from Gregory of Tours and it may be summed up thus: Under the consulate of Decius and of Gratus seven bishops were sent from Rome to Gaul to preach the Gospel...” (newadvent.org) The Church celebrates his feast on 30 June.


(3e siècle) Fut également appelé « l’apôtre des Gaules » ou « l’apôtre d'Aquitaine » - Serait selon la tradition le premier évêque de Limoges.

Russia’s federal subjects

Russia comprises eighty-five federal subjects: 46 oblasts область (provinces); 22 republics, nominally autonomous, meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities; 9 krais край (territories); 4 autonomous okrugs автономный округ (districts); 1 autonomous oblast Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть (the Jewish Autonomous Oblast); 3 federal cities (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol), functioning as separate regions.

Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks (1913-2005) - An American activist in the civil rights movement, best known for the Montgomery Bus Boycott - "The mother of the freedom movement"


Rosa Parks (1913-2005) - Activiste américaine du mouvement des droits civiques, connue en partic. pour le boycott du bus de Montgomery - "La mère du mouvement de la liberté".

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954-) is the 12th President of Turkey. Playing football for Kasımpaşa, Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998, Prime Minister of Turkey from 2003 to 2014, he also founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2001. Coming from an Islamist political background, he later abandoned openly Islamist politics, advocating negotiations for Turkey's membership of the European Union. A failed military coup d'état attempt in 2016 resulted in massive purges and a state of emergency, the government claiming the coup to have been supported by Fethullah Gülen and his Movement who denied any role in it. His foreign policy has been described as Neo-Ottoman (Syria, Libya, Iraq, views on Mediterranean oil ressources…)


Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954-) est le 12e président de la Turquie. Membre de l'équipe de football de Kasımpaşa, maire d'Istanbul de 1994 à 1998, Premier ministre de Turquie de 2003 à 2014, il a également fondé le Parti de la justice et du développement (AKP) en 2001. Issu d'un milieu politique islamiste, il a ensuite abandonné la politique ouvertement islamiste, soutenant les négociations d'adhésion de la Turquie à l'Union européenne. Une tentative de coup d'État militaire ratée en 2016 a entraîné des purges massives et l'instauration de l'état d'urgence, le gouvernement affirmant que le coup d'État avait été soutenu par Fethullah Gülen et son mouvement qui ont nié tout rôle dans ce coup d'État. Sa politique étrangère a été décrite comme néo-ottomane (Syrie, Libye, Irak, visées sur les ressources pétrolières de la Méditerranée...)

Rama Kamhaeng

Rama Kamhaeng

Ram Khamhaeng the Great รามคำแหงมหาราช (or Pho Khun Ram Khamhaeng) – King of the Phra Ruang dynasty, ruling the Sukhothai Kingdom – Credited to be the creator of the Thai alphabet in 1283.


Ram Khamhaeng, dit Rama le Fort – รามคำแหงมหาราช – ou Pho Khun Ram Khamhaeng) – Étend le royaume de Sukhothaï – Considéré comme le créateur de l'alphabet thaï en 1283.

Queen of Sheba

Queen of Sheba

The Queen of Sheba (Ge'ez : ንግሥተ ሳባ nəgəstä Saba) – Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible –Said to have reached Jerusalem and King Solomon "with a very great retinue, with camels bearing spices, and very much gold, and precious stones" (I Kings 10:2) – Maybe coming from present-day Yemen – Gave birth to extensive Jewish, Islamic, and Ethiopian elaborations.


La reine de Saba (Ge'ez : ንግሥተ ሳባ nəgəstä Saba) - Mentionnée dans la Bible hébraïque - Aurait atteint Jérusalem et le roi Salomon "avec une très grande suite et des chameaux convoyant épices, or et pierres précieuses" (Livre des Rois 10:2) – Serait venue du Yémen actuel – A donné lieu à de nombreuses interprétations en particulier juives, islamiques et éthiopiennes.

Rama IX

Bhumibol Adulyadej ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช (1927 - 2016) - King of Thailand from 1946 to 2016 under the name of Rama IX, ninth monarch of the Chakri dynasty. Idolized in his country, at the head of an immense fortune.


Rama IX

Bhumibol Adulyadej ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช (1927 - 2016) – Roi de Thaïlande de 1946 à 2016 sous le nom de Rama IX, neuvième monarque de la dynastie des Chakri. Idolâtré dans son pays, à la tête d’une immense fortune.

Rama X

Vajiralongkorn วชิราลงกรณ (1952-) King of Thailand since 2016 under the name of Rama X, tenth monarch of the Chakri dynasty.


Rama X

Vajiralongkorn วชิราลงกรณ (1952-) Roi de Thaïlande depuis 2016 sous le nom de Rama X, dixième monarque de la dynastie des Chakri.

Nicolae Ceaușescu

Nicolae Ceaușescu (1918 – 1989) - A Romanian politician, General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, President of the Republic until his overthrow and execution in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989. He encouraged press censorship, intensification of the secret police (the Securitate), extensive nepotism and a growing cult of personality while the country faced severe economic mismanagement leading in 1982 to heavy rationing of basic products and necessities.

Nakhichevan…

Nakhichevan (Azeri: Naxçıvan, Armenian Նախիջեվան) - Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan at the center of a major conflict with Armenia that broke out in 1989 - Possessed the largest Armenian cemetery with thousands of khatchkars now missing - belonged to the ancient Armenian province of Vaspurakan.


Le Nakhitchevan...

Nakhitchevan (azéri : Naxçıvan ; arménien Նախիջեվան) - République autonome d'Azerbaïdjan au centre d'un conflit majeur avec l'Arménie qui éclata en 1989 - Possédait le plus vaste cimetière arménien comptant des milliers de khatchkars aujourd'hui disparus - Appartenait à l'acienne province arménienne du Vaspourakan.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) was the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938. A national hero at the Battle of the Dardanelles, refusing the defeat and collapse that followed the end of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, he successively defeated foreign armies and was awarded the title of "Gazi" ("The Victorious"). He moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara and his main task was to westernize the country: secularism entered the constitution, Islam no longer being considered the official religion, he replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet and gave women the right to vote. Hisstrong position and unfailing support enabled him to renegotiate the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was in favour of Armenians, Kurds and Greeks, the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) ratifying most of his demands with major consequences for the populations concerned.


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) est le fondateur et le premier président de la République de Turquie de 1923 à 1938. Héros national lors de la Bataille des Dardanelles, refusant la défaite et l’écroulement consécutifs à la fin de l’Empire Ottoman et de ses positions durant la 1ère Guerre Mondiale, il défait successivement les armées étrangères et reçoit le titre de « Gazi » (« Le victorieux »). Il déplace la capitale d’Istanbul à Ankara et sa principale tâche va être d’occidentaliser le pays : la laïcité entre dans la constitution, l'islam n’étant plus considéré comme religion officielle, il remplace l’alphabet arabe par l’alphabet latin, il donne le droit de vote aux femmes. Sa position forte, le soutien indéfectible dont il dispose, lui permettent de renégocier le Traité de Sèvres (1920) favorable aux Arméniens, Kurdes et Grecs, le traité de Lausanne (1923) entérinant la plupart de ses exigences avec des conséquences majeures sur les populations concernées.

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (1844 –1885) - A Sudanese religious leader proclaimed the Mahdi by his disciples. After his success against Ottoman-Egyptian and over the British armies, he created a vast Islamic state from the Red Sea to Central Africa. His supporters were the Ansars. At his death, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad ruled as Khalifa. By 1899, the Mahdist state was finally defeated during the Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan.

Nagorno-Karabakh

Nagorno-Karabakh (Արցախ, Artsakh or Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ, Leṙnayin Gharabagh, the "Mountainous Gharabagh") - Self-proclaimed Republic of Transcaucasia declaring its independence in 1991 - Not recognized by the international community.


Haut-Karabakh

Haut-Karabagh (Արցախ, Artsakh ou Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ, Leṙnayin Gharabagh, soit le "Gharabagh montagneux") - République autoproclamée de Transcaucasie ayant déclaré son indépendance en 1991 - Non reconnue par la communauté internationale.

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