Mara Salvatrucha

Mara Salvatrucha

(or MS-13) A highly criminal and violent gang founded in Los Angeles since the 1970s, initially intended to protect Salvadoran immigrants from other gangs in Los Angeles area – His members were partly deported to El Salvador after the Salvadoran Civil War in 1992, and spread all over North and Central America.

119/200frontier

El Salvador is bordered on the north by Honduras (east) and Guatemala (west), and on the south by the Pacific Ocean. (Spanish lg)


Le Salvador est bordé au nord par le Honduras (est) et le Guatemala (ouest), et au sud par l'océan Pacifique.

Borders… what are borders? How is a border defined? From the Philene brothers to armed conflicts, from the drawing of the rules to their questioning, how have borders been set? How was border control envisaged? What place has customs occupied throughout the human adventure? What was, what is the place of diplomacy? According to the ages and societies, how was the foreigner considered?... (to be completed)

Qu’est-ce qu’une frontière ? Comment la définir ? Des frères Philène aux conflits armés, du tracé à la règle à leur remise en question, comment se sont fixées les frontières ? Comment a–t–on envisagé le contrôle des frontières? Quelle place la douane a-t-elle occupée au long de l’aventure humaine ? Quelle fut, quelle est la place de la diplomatie ? Au gré des âges et des sociétés, comment a-t-on considéré l’étranger ?... (à compléter)

« El Salvador: Gangs ‘taking advantage of pandemic’… »

« El Salvador: Gangs ‘taking advantage of pandemic’… »

"The president of El Salvador, Nayib Bukele, has said criminal gangs are taking advantage of the coronavirus pandemic after more than 50 people were killed between Friday and Sunday. He authorised the police and army to use lethal force to curb the violence. He also ordered a 24/7 lockdown for imprisoned gang members, arguing that many of the murders were ordered from behind bars.(…) El Salvador's security minister said the idea behind making rival gang members mix was so as to break up lines of communication between members of the same group and thereby limit their ability to plan attacks. Before President Bukele came to power, members of the two rival gangs that are behind much of the violence in El Salvador - Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street gang - were housed in separate prisons in order to prevent deadly prison fights. But President Bukele put an end to that arrangement, arguing it allowed the gangs to impose their own rules and take control of "their" prison to the extent that they would continue running their criminal enterprises from the inside, including ordering murders of prison staff and their family members. As part of the new, more restrictive prison regime, inmates' communication was cut off, with wifi signals being scrambled and cell phones seized." - BBC News - April 2020

El Salvador

El Salvador

El Salvador is a country in America. Its capital is: San Salvador. Its official language is: Spanish . Its currency is: United States Dollar.

Code: SV | SLV
FR: Salvador
DE: El Salvador
IT: El Salvador
ES: El Salvador
ZH: 萨尔瓦多
PI: sà'ěrwǎduō
JA: エルサルバドル
RO: Erusarubadoru
Capital: San Salvador

Salvadoran Civil War

From 1979 to 1992, the Salvadoran Civil War in El Salvador opposed the junta government assisted by US and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). The human cost of this war was very high among civilians. The Chapultepec Peace Accords put an end to the conflict.


De 1979 à 1992, la guerre civile salvadorienne au Salvador a opposé le gouvernement de la junte assisté par les États-Unis et le Front Farabundo Martí de libération nationale (FMLN). Le coût humain de cette guerre a été très élevé parmi les civils. Les accords de paix de Chapultepec ont mis fin au conflit.

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