Xuanzang

Xuanzang

Xuanzang 玄奘 (c. 602 – 664) - A Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar known for his decisive seventeen-year travel to India when he visited many sacred Buddhist sites in present Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The record of his journey later inspired the novel Journey to the West by Wu Cheng'en (c. 1500–1582).


Xuanzang 玄奘 (c. 602 - 664) - Moine bouddhiste et érudit chinois, connu pour ses dix-sept années de voyage en Inde durant lesquelles il visita de nombreux sites bouddhistes au Pakistan, en Inde, au Népal et au Bangladesh. Le récit de son voyage inspira plus tard le roman La Pérégrination vers l'Ouest de Wu Cheng'en (vers 1500 - 1582).

Trimurti

Trimurti

Trimurti त्रिमूर्ति - the Triple deity of supreme divinity in Hinduism with Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer.


Trimurti - Triple divinité suprême dans l'hindouisme avec Brahma qui crée, Vishnu qui préserve et Shiva qui détruit.

Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal ताज महल ("Crown of the Palaces") - An ivory-white marble mausoleum in Agra, commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan for the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.


Le Taj Mahal ताज महल ("la couronne des palais") - Un mausolée de marbre blanc ivoire à Agra, commandé en 1632 par l'empereur moghol Shah Jahan pour le tombeau de sa femme préférée, Mumtaz Mahal.

Taliban

Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎, meaning “students”) - A Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement and military organisation mainly located in Afghanistan (and Pakistan) which held power in this country from 1996 to 2001 and were overthrown after the September 11 attacks. Their goal is to enforce a strict interpretation of Sharia waging war for reaching it.

Sentinelese

Sentinelese

Sentinelese (or Sentineli or North Sentinel Islanders) - An indigenous people inhabiting North Sentinel Island - Bay of Bengal, India - belonging to the Andamanese people with the Great Andamanese, the Jarawas, the Onge, the Shompen, and the Nicobarese - Said to be one of the world's last uncontacted peoples. Since 1956 declared by Indian government as a tribal reserve and prohibited travel.


Sentinelles - Un peuple indigène habitant l’île de North Sentinel - Baie du Bengale, Inde - Appartiennent au peuple andamanais – Réputés être l'un des derniers peuples isolés du monde. Depuis 1956, le gouvernement indien l'a déclaré réserve tribale, interdisant tout contact avec elle.

Sarla Thakral

Sarla Thakral

Sarla Thakral सरला ठकराल (1914 –2008) also known as Mati - The first Indian woman to fly an aircraft – Then became a businesswoman, painter and even clothes designer.


Sarla Thakral सरला ठकराल (1914–2008), également connue sous le nom de Mati - La première femme indienne à piloter un avion – Devint plus tard une femme d'affaires, peintre et créatrice de vêtements.

Sacred Cow

Sacred Cow

Gao Mata "Mother Cow" - Sacrality of the cow in India (as it is in other civilizations) – The cow provides five products: milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung. Panchagavya or panchakavyam is a mixture used in traditional Hindu rituals that is prepared by mixing those five products.


Gao Mata « Mère Vache » - Sacralité de la vache en Inde (elle l’est également dans d’autres civilisations) – Elle pourvoit cinq produits : le lait, le lait caillé, le ghee, l'urine et les excréments. Leur mélange est nommé panchagavya.

Roma

Means "man" in Hindi and Romani - Refers to a set of known populations under various names: Gypsies, Gypsies, Manouches, Romanichels, Kalés, etc. The term was proposed by the International Romani Union in 1974. Their most distant origin would be Indian, although settlement and often sedentary situations became very complex throughout the centuries. The itinerant way of life of a certain part of them is one of the elements put forward to explain the myth, the folklore, the realities or even the denunciation. Victims of genocide during the Second World War, Roma have been the subject of many attempts to constrain, assimilate, integrate, at the option of time and society.

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর (1861-1941) - A Bengali poet and musician.


Rabindranath Tagore রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর (1861-1941) - Poète et musicien bengali.

Ramayana

Ramayana

Ramayana रामायणम् - A major Sanskrit epics of ancient India (another being the Mahābhārata) - Narrates the life of Rama, the legendary prince of the Kosala Kingdom.


Ramayana रामायणम् - Une épopée majeure de l'Inde ancienne (une autre étant le Mahābhārata) - Raconte la vie de Rama, le prince légendaire du royaume de Kosala.

Purusharthas

In Hinduism, the goals of humankind are known as Purusharthas: Artha: Wealth; Kama: Desire ; Dharma: Righteousness, Duty; Moksha: Liberation. They are said to be revolving around Varnashrama (4 Stages of human life): Brahmacharya – Student phase of life; Grihastha – Married phase of life and duties of maintaining a Householder; Vanaprastha – Retirement phase, handing over responsibilities to next generation; Sanyasa – Phase of giving up material desires and prejudices.

Muhammad Yunus

Muhammad Yunus

Muhammad Yunus (1940 -) মুহাম্মদ ইউনূস – Founder of the Grameen Bank. Nobel Peace Prize 2006.


Muhammad Yunus (1940 -) মুহাম্মদ ইউনূস - Fondateur de la Grameen Bank, père du micro-crédit. Prix Nobel de la Paix 2006.

Mahābhārata

Mahābhārata महाभारतम् - A major Sanskrit epics of ancient India (another being the Ramayana) - Narrates the opposition between the Pandava and Kaurava clans. Contains highly spiritual teachings, especially with the Bhagavad Gita and other parts of this huge epic work (often considered as the longest poem ever written).


Mahābhārata महाभारतम् - Une épopée majeure de l'Inde ancienne (une autre étant le Ramayana) - Raconte l'opposition entre le clan des Pandava et celui des Kaurava. Contient des enseignements hautement spirutuels, tout particulièrement avec la Bhagavad Gita et d'autres parties de cette immense œuvre épique (souvent considérée comme le plus long poème jamais écrit).

Kandy

Kandy

Kandy (Sinhala: මහනුවර Mahanuwara ; Tamil: கண்டி Kandy) - A city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province – The last capital of the ancient kings' era - Home of the Temple of the Tooth Relic (Sri Dalada Maligawa), a sacred place of worship for Buddhism - UNESCO World Heritage Site 1988 - “This sacred Buddhist site, popularly known as the city of Senkadagalapura, was the last capital of the Sinhala kings whose patronage enabled the Dinahala culture to flourish for more than 2,500 years until the occupation of Sri Lanka by the British in 1815. It is also the site of the Temple of the Tooth Relic (the sacred tooth of the Buddha), which is a famous pilgrimage site.”


Kandy (cinghalais: මහනුවර Mahanuwara; tamoul: கண்டி Kandy) - Une ville du Sri Lanka située dans la province centrale - La dernière capitale de l'ère des rois anciens - On y trouve le temple de la Dent du Bouddha (Sri Dalada Maligawa), un lieu sacré du bouddhisme - Site du patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO 1988 - « ...Ce site sacré du bouddhisme, communément appelé « ville de Senkadagalapura », a été la dernière capitale des rois de Sinhala dont le mécénat a permis à la culture de Dinahala de s'épanouir pendant plus de 2 500 ans, jusqu'à l'occupation de Sri Lanka par les Britanniques en 1815. C'est aussi le site du temple de la Dent du Bouddha, célèbre lieu de pèlerinage. »

Jadev Payeng

Jadev Payeng

Jadev Payeng যাদৱ পায়েং (1963-) - The "forestman" who planted a forest on a sandbar of the river Brahmaputra on several decades


Jadev Payeng যাদৱ পায়েং (1963-) - "L'homme-forêt" qui a planté toute une forêt sur une île fluviale du Brahmapoutre, pendant plusieurs décennies.

Indian dynasties

Here are some of the main Indian dynasties and location:
• Haryanka (Magadha)
• Nanda (Magadha)
• Mauryan (Magadha)
• Sunga (Magadha)
• Kanva (Magadha)
• Satvahana (Maharashtra)
• Kushan (West-Northern India)
• Chola Dynasty, Adi (Cholamandalama)
• Gupta (Magadha)
• Chalukya Badami (Badami)
• Pallava (Kanchi)
• Chalukya Vengi (Vengi)
• Rashtrakuta (Maharashtra)
• Pala (Bengal)
• Chola (Tamil Region)
• Slave dynasty (Northern India)
• Khilji (Northern India)
• Tughluq (Northern India)
• Lodhi (Northern India)
• Mughal (almost all India)

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization - A Bronze Age civilisation (from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE) flourishing in the basins of the Indus River - Indus script still undeciphered.


Civilisation de la vallée de l'Indus - Durant l'âge du bronze (de 3300 à 1300 avant notre ère) s’épanouissant dans les bassins de l'Indus - L'écriture de l'Indus reste indéchiffrée.

Hinduism

Main religion of India whose Trimurti constitutes one of the bases (with Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva).


hindouisme

Religion principale de l’Inde dont la Trimurti constitue une des bases (avec Brahma, Vishnu et Shiva).

Guru Nanak

Guru Nanak

Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539) / Penjabi, ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ (Gurū Nānak Dev) - The founder of Sikhism and first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His words are registered in the fundamental text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib.


Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539) / penjabi, ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ (Gurū Nānak Dev) - Le fondateur du sikhisme et le premier des dix gourous sikhs. Ses paroles sont inscrites dans le texte fondamental du sikhisme, le Guru Granth Sahib.

Guru Granth Sahib

The Guru Granth Sahib is the holy book of Sikhism. It was developed in several phases of compilation from the beginning of the 17th century to the beginning of the following century. He succeeded the last guru of the community, Guru Gobind Singh, and became at his death in 1708, the only supreme authority.

Proposed by

Gandhi

Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી (1869 – 1948)... the Great Soul (Mahâtmâ), an Indian activist - Leader of the Indian independence and non-violent movement against British rule.


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi કરમચંદ ગાંધી (1869 - 1948) - La "Grande Âme" (Mahâtmâ), activiste indien - leader de l’indépendance indienne et du mouvement non violent contre l'occupation britannique.

Bollywood

Bollywood बॉलीवुड is a portmanteau (Bombay + Hollywood) for designating the major industry in Indian cinema, located in Mumbai. It is one of the largest centres of film production in the world. It is welknown for its action, comedy, romance, drama along with musical performance.

Yoga

yoga

Yoga योग « union, joug, méthode », « mise au repos » - Discipline ou pratique issue des philosophies indiennes qui cherche par la méditation et les exercices corporels, à réaliser une forme d’union entre le physique, le psychique et le spirituel. Une des six écoles orthodoxes de la philosophie indienne. Depuis 2014, le 21 juin est la « Journée internationale du yoga ».

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véda

Ensemble de textes révélés aux rishis(sages) constituant les fondements du védisme, du brahmanisme et de l’hindouisme.

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vahana

vahana

Vahana वाहन "that which carries" - An animal or mythical entity as a vehicle of a Hindu deity.


vahana

Vahana वाहन "ce qui porte" - Un animal ou une entité mythique en tant que véhicule d'une divinité hindoue.

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stupa

stupa

Stupa स्तूप (Sanskrit: "heap") – A mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics or place of meditation, in different Indian religions (Jainism, Buddhism).


stupa

Stupa स्तूप (sanskrit) - Structure hémisphérique ou en forme de monticule contenant des reliques ou lieu de méditation, dans différentes religions indiennes (notamment le bouddhisme, mais aussi le jaïnisme).

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samsara

Saṃsāra संसार - The idea that in all Indian religions everything is linked to the karma theory, living beings cyclically going through births and rebirths. The word means "wandering" or "world" with the idea of a "cyclic change".


samsara

Dans les spiritualités indiennes, désigne la succession des vies, reliées au karma – Le mot vient du sanskrit et renvoie à « ce qui circule ».

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sadhu

sadhu

Sadhu साधु "straight, right, leading straight to goal" – A religious ascetic person in India who has renounced the worldly life, dedicated to achieving mokṣa (liberation).


sadhu

Sādhu साधु « ayant atteint son bu » - Ascète qui a renoncé à la société pour se consacrer au moksha, la libération de l'illusion (māyā), l'arrêt du cycle des renaissances (samsara).

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