(عُمْرَة) An Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca that can be undertaken at any time of the year. Sometimes considered the “lesser pilgrimage” compared to the Hajj, because not compulsory, but still highly recommended. Etym. lit. “to visit a populated place”.

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(حَجّ) For Muslims around the world, an annual pilgrimage to Mecca, a mandatory religious duty (arkan) - Must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Second Gulf War

The Iraq War (or Second Gulf War) was conducted in 2003 on the initiative of the United States, the United Kingdom and a few allies. It lead to the overthrow of Saddam Hussein (1937 - 2006).

La guerre d’Irak (ou troisième guerre du golfe) est conduite en 2003 à l’initiative des Etats-Unis, du Royaume-Uni et de quelques alliés. Elle mène au renversement de Saddam Hussein (1937 / 2006).

Islamic State self-proclaimed « caliphate »

In 2014CE the Islamic State self-proclaimed a "caliphate" on Iraq and Syria, sparking an international coalition to reduce it.

Le dit Etat Islamique auto-proclame un « califat » sur l’Irak et la Syrie, suscitant une coalition internationale destinée à le réduire. Des attentats successifs sont commis en son nom dans divers pays.

First war of the gulf

Iraq was at the origin of the war of Kuwait (or "first war of the gulf" as it was named from 2003) in 1990-1991 which resulted in the failure of its attempt against a coalition of 34 states.

L’Irak est à l’origine de la guerre du Koweit (ou "première guerre du golfe") en 1990-1991 qui se soldera par l’échec de sa tentative face à une coalition de 34 Etats.

Nebuchadnezzar and the captivity in Babylon

In 587 BCE, the kingdom of Judah is invaded by Nebuchadnezzar who takes part of the Hebrew people in captivity to Babylon. The temple is destroyed (it will be rebuilt in 515 BCE).

En 587 av. J.-C. , le royaume de Juda est envahi par Nabuchodonosor qui emmène une partie du peuple hébreu en captivité à Babylone. Le temple est détruit (il sera reconstruit en 515 av. J.-C. ).