Cheese rolling event since the 1800s

“Gloucestershire’s Cooper Hill has been host to the traditional cheese rolling event since the 1800s, but health and safety concerns meant the event was officially cancelled in 2010. Since then however, triumphant spectators and loyal competitors have continued to descend on Cooper’s Hill, determined to keep this world-famous tradition alive – with this year’s event set to take place on Monday 25 May 2020. The slope on Cooper’s Hill in Gloucester, the setting for the world-famous event, is in fact so steep that very few contestants manage to stay on their feet, instead tumbling head-over-heels down the hill in a desperate effort to catch the coveted dairy prize – a weighty 8lb Double Gloucester.” (soglos.com)

Cooper’s Hill Cheese-Rolling and Wake


Cooper’s Hill Cheese-Rolling and Wake

Cooper's Hill Cheese-Rolling and Wake - An annual and now international event held near Gloucester / England. It consists of sending a 7–9 pounds round of Double Gloucester cheese from the top of the hill, competitors racing down after it in the hope to catch it.

Watch a Downhill Cheese-Chasing Competition in Britain | National Geographic

Those who have no patience…

How poor are they that have not patience!
What wound did ever heal but by degrees?
Thou know'st we work by wit, and not by witchcraft;
And wit depends on dilatory time.


Pauvres gens que ceux qui n'ont pas de patience ! Quelle blessure s'est jamais guérie autrement que par degrés.

- Othello (II, iii, 376-379)
Virginia Woolf

Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf born Stephen (1882 – 1941) - An English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors, whose novels were of major influence on the genre because of their nonlinear approaches to narrative – Cofounder of the Bloomsbury Group.


Adeline Virginia Woolf, née Stephen (1882 - 1941) - Auteure anglaise, considérée comme l'une des plus important/es auteur/es modernistes du XXe siècle, dont les romans ont eu une influence majeure sur le genre en raison de leur approche non linéaire de la narration - Cofondateur du groupe de Bloomsbury.

Stonehenge

Stonehenge

Stonehenge - A prehistoric monument among the most famous landmarks in the United Kingdom consisting of a ring of standing stones. Said to date back to 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE. UNESCO World Heritage Site 1986 with Avebury and Associated Sites… “Stonehenge is one of the most impressive prehistoric megalithic monuments in the world on account of the sheer size of its megaliths, the sophistication of its concentric plan and architectural design, the shaping of the stones - uniquely using both Wiltshire Sarsen sandstone and Pembroke Bluestone - and the precision with which it was built.”


Stonehenge - Monument préhistorique comptant parmi les monuments les plus célèbres du Royaume-Uni, constitué d'un cercle de pierres dressées. Il remonterait de 3000 à 2000 avant J.-C. Patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO 1986 avec Avebury et les sites associés…« Stonehenge est l’un des monuments préhistoriques mégalithiques les plus impressionnants du monde en raison de la taille de ses mégalithes, la complexité de son plan concentrique et de sa conception architecturale, la forme des pierres – uniquement des blocs de grès Sarsen du Wiltshire et de pierre bleue de Pembroke – et la précision de la construction de l’ensemble. »

Pop Art

Pop art - An art movement emerging in the United Kingdom and the United States during the late 1950s – Based upon popular and mass culture imagery (advertising, comic books, objects…) often relying on the use of irony.


Pop art - Un mouvement artistique apparaissant au Royaume-Uni et aux États-Unis à la fin des années 1950 - Fondé sur des images de la culture populaire (publicité, bandes dessinées, objets…) et reposant souvent sur l'utilisation de l'ironie.

Max Richter

Max Richter (1966-) – A German-British composer born in Hamelin, graduated in composition from the Royal Academy of Music - Has studied with Luciano Berio. Associated with the post-minimalism - Also composer for stage, opera, ballet and screen.

Max Richter: On The Nature Of Daylight (Entropy) Taken from ‘The Blue Notebooks’ (2018) – new recording

Labouchere Amendment

Labouchere Amendment - Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 which mandated "gross indecency" as a criminal offence in the UK mainly when actual sodomy could not be proven. The Sexual Offences Act 1967, partially decriminalized male homosexual behaviour. Text: "Any male person who, in public or private, commits, or is a party to the commission of, or procures, or attempts to procure the commission by any male person of, any act of gross indecency with an other male person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and being convicted thereof, shall be liable at the discretion of the Court to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding two years, with or without hard labour."

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes (1883 –1946) - A British economist, author of The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 - Founder of modern macroeconomics - Part of the Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals.


John Maynard Keynes (1883 –1946) - Économiste britannique, auteur de La Théorie générale de l'emploi, de l'intérêt et de la monnaie, publié en 1936 - Fondateur de la macroéconomie moderne - Membre du groupe des intellectuels de Bloomsbury.

Hyde Park

Hyde Park

Hyde Park – A major park in Central London, established by Henry VIII in 1536, divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water lakes. Well known for its Speakers' Corner, a point of free speech and debate since 1872, and its large-scale free rock music concerts (Pink Floyd, The Rolling Stones, Queen…).


Hyde Park - Grand parc du centre de Londres, créé par Henri VIII en 1536. Connu pour son Speakers 'Corner, un espace de liberté d'expression et de débat depuis 1872, et ses concerts géants et gratuits de musique rock (Pink Floyd, The Rolling Stones, Queen…).

Giant’s Causeway

Giant’s Causeway

Giant's Causeway – Resulting of an ancient volcanic eruption, an area of 40 000 basalt columns located in Northern Ireland (County Antrim) - Forming stepping stones at the top, having mostly six but also four, five, seven or eight sides. UNESCO World Heritage Site 1986. “…The Giant's Causeway lies at the foot of the basalt cliffs along the sea coast on the edge of the Antrim plateau in Northern Ireland. It is made up of some 40,000 massive black basalt columns sticking out of the sea. The dramatic sight has inspired legends of giants striding over the sea to Scotland. Geological studies of these formations over the last 300 years have greatly contributed to the development of the earth sciences, and show that this striking landscape was caused by volcanic activity during the Tertiary, some 50–60 million years ago.”


Chaussée des Géants - Résultant d'une ancienne éruption volcanique, zone de 40000 colonnes de basalte situées en Irlande du Nord (comté d'Antrim) - formant des marches au sommet, ayant principalement six mais aussi quatre, cinq, sept ou huit côtés. Site du patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO 1986. « ... Au pied des falaises qui bordent le plateau d'Antrim en Irlande du Nord, la Chaussée des Géants, composée de quelque 40 000 colonnes de basalte, s'enfonce doucement dans la mer. Elle a inspiré des légendes où des géants l'utilisaient pour franchir la mer jusqu'en Écosse. Les études géologiques qui lui ont été consacrées depuis 300 ans ont contribué au développement des sciences de la Terre et montré que ce paysage spectaculaire s'expliquait par des activités volcaniques datant du tertiaire, il y a quelque 50 à 60 millions d'années. »

Gresham’s law

Gresham's law - A monetary theory stating that "bad money drives out good" named after Sir Thomas Gresham (1519–1579), an English financier during the Tudor dynasty. This idea formulated Gresham's law in 1860 was expressed many times earlier, notably by Nicolaus Copernicus. That's why it is sometimes called the Gresham–Copernicus law.

Emmeline Pankhurst

Emmeline Pankhurst

Emmeline Pankhurst born Emiline Goulden (1858 –1928) - A British political activist – She organized the British suffragette movement aiming at getting women the right to vote. She founded the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903.


Emmeline Pankhurst née Emiline Goulden (1858-1928) - Activiste politique britannique - Elle a organisé le mouvement britannique des suffragettes visant à obtenir le droit de vote des femmes. Elle a fondé l'Union sociale et politique des femmes (WSPU) en 1903.

Dolly

Dolly

Dolly (1996 – 2003) – A female domestic sheep, the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell by Keith Campbell and colleagues at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.


Dolly (1996 – 2003) - Un mouton domestique femelle, le premier mammifère cloné à partir d'une cellule somatique adulte par Keith Campbell et ses collègues de l'Université d'Edimbourg, Écosse.

Dame Jane Morris Goodall

Dame Jane Morris Goodall

Dame Jane Morris Goodall (1934 -) - An English primatologist and anthropologist, one of the best experts on chimpanzees she studied all along 55 years - founder of the Jane Goodall Institute and the Roots & Shoots programme - Honorary member of the World Future Council.


Dame Jane Morris Goodall (1934 -) - Primatologue et anthropologue anglaise, l'une des meilleures expertes en chimpanzés qu’elle a étudiés durant plus de ans - Fondatrice de l'Institut Jane Goodall et du programme Roots & Shoots - Membre honoraire du World Future Council.

Berlin Conference

The so-called Berlin Conference took place there from November 1884 to February 1885, and its main object was to agree on the partition of Africa between the colonial powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Ottoman Empire, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Sweden-Norway and the United States.

Bath Stone

Bath Stone

Bath Stone - An oolitic limestone (with fragments of calcium carbonate) originally obtained from the Combe Down mines, making the city of Bath particularly famous - UNESCO World Heritage - 1987.


Pierre de Bath

Pierre de Bath – Un calcaire oolithique (avec des fragments de carbonate de calcium) originairement obtenu des mines de Combe Down, faisant tout particulièrement la notoriété de la ville de Bath – Patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO – 1987.

Alcuin

Alcuin

Alcuin of York (735 – 804 CE) or Ealhwine —An English scholar and clergyman who, at the invitation of Charlemagne, was a prominent teacher at the Carolingian court, one of the leaders of the Carolingian Renaissance.


Alcuin of York (735 - 804 après J.-C.) ou Ealhwine - Un érudit et ecclésiastique anglais qui, à l'invitation de Charlemagne, fut un professeur éminent à la cour carolingienne, l'un des plus importants architectes de la Renaissance carolingienne.

All You Need Is Love

All You Need Is Love

A song by the Beatles released in 1967. Written by John Lennon – The B-side of the single was “Baby, You're a Rich Man” – “All you need is love / All you need is love / All you need is love, love / Love is all you need”


All You Need Is Love

All You Need Is Love - Une chanson des Beatles sortie en 1967. Écrite par John Lennon - La face B du single était “Baby, You're a Rich Man” – “All you need is love / All you need is love / All you need is love, love / Love is all you need”.

Adam Smith

Adam Smith

Adam Smith (1723 - 1790) - A Scottish economist and philosopher – Considered as ''The Father of Economics''- Author of “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” (1776).


Adam Smith (1723 - 1790) - Économiste et philosophe écossais - Considéré comme « le père de l'économie politique » - Auteur de « Recherches sur la nature et les causes de la richesse des nations » (1776).

156/200computer

Alan Mathison Turing (1912 – 1954) is an English mathematician who contributed to the development of theoretical computer science. (English lg)


Alan Mathison Turing (1912 - 1954) est un mathématicien anglais qui a contribué au développement de l'informatique théorique.

What is a computer? How to define it? How did computers come into being? How did they develop? What place did they gradually take? How should we view the computer - its place and role in today's world? What is its participation in contemporary equilibria/balances? How has the digital world been supported by the development of computers? How has a significant proportion of digital uses gradually freed themselves from the use of computers?... (to be completed)

Qu’est-ce qu’un ordinateur ? Comment le définir ? Comment les ordinateurs ont-ils vu le jour ? Comment se sont-ils développés ? Quelle place ont–ils progressivement prise ? Comment considérer l’ordinateur – sa place et son rôle dans le monde actuel ? Quelle est sa participation aux équilibres/déséquilibres contemporains ? Comment le numérique s’est–il appuyé sur le développement des ordinateurs ? Comment une part importante des usages numériques s’affranchit–elle progressivement de l’usage des ordinateurs ?... (à compléter)

Swan upping

Governed by an act dating back to 1324, the Queen of England owns all sturgeons, whales, porpoises and dolphins present in British waters. She can also drive without a licence, although she has been issued one. She has her own cash dispenser in the basement of Buckingham Palace. She also has her own poet (Poet Laureate), an official position at court which was first held by a woman, Carol Ann Duffy, in 2009. In 2019 she was succeeded by Simon Armitage. In truth, the Queen has very special prerogatives, and one of them will keep us particularly busy: the ownership of all the unmarked open-water swans present on certain stretches of the Thames. It has been a tradition since 1186 that for five days, officials in red jackets decorated with the royal insignia, a feather on their caps, travel in boats for several miles in search of the royal swans. Such is the "swan upping"! The custom used to go hand in hand with the tasting of this delicacy of choice for royal banquets. And it is worth noting that "those who stole their eggs were punished in the 16th century with a prison sentence and a large fine". Until now, the almost thousand-year-old ceremony had only been cancelled once, very recently, since in 2012, exceptional floods had prevented the event from taking place. That was without counting on COVID-19! While the 2020 ceremony was scheduled from 13 to 17 July, between Sunbury-on-Thames (West London) and Abingdon (near Oxford), Buckingham Palace confirmed that the annual Royal Swan Count would not take place. However keep relax, the Swan Marker and his assessors, the "swan uppers", will continue to work with the Thames swan rescue organisations on a daily basis.


Régie par une loi datant de 1324, la reine d’Angleterre possède tous les esturgeons, baleines, marsouins et dauphins présents dans les eaux britanniques. Elle peut également conduire sans permis, bien qu’on lui en ait délivré un. Elle possède son propre distributeur de billets, dans le sous-sol du palais de Buckingham. Et sachez qu’elle a également son propre poète (Poet Laureate), fonction officielle à la cour qui, pour la première fois en 2009, fut occupée par une femme, Carol Ann Duffy. En 2019 lui a succédé Simon Armitage. En vérité, la reine dispose de prérogatives très spéciales, et parmi elles, l’une nous occupera tout particulièrement : la propriété qu’elle exerce sur tous les cygnes non marqués en eau libre présents sur certains tronçons de la Tamise. La tradition, depuis 1186, veut que durant cinq jours, des responsables en vestes rouges décorées des insignes royaux, une plume sur leur casquette, parcourent en barques plusieurs miles à la recherche des cygnes royaux. Tel est le « swan upping » ! La coutume allait autrefois de pair avec la dégustation de ce mets de choix pour les banquets royaux. Et l’on soulignera que « ceux qui dérobaient leurs œufs étaient punis au XVIe siècle d'une peine de prison et d'une forte amende ». Jusqu’ici la cérémonie quasi millénaire n’avait été annulée qu’une seule fois, fort récemment, puisqu’en 2012, des inondations exceptionnelles en avaient interdit la tenue. C’était sans compter avec le COVID-19 ! Tandis que la cérémonie en 2020 devait se dérouler du 13 au 17 juillet, entre Sunbury-on-Thames (ouest de Londres) et Abingdon (près d'Oxford), Buckingham Palace annonça que le comptage annuel des cygnes royaux, n'aurait pas lieu. Que l’on se rassure, le Marqueur des Cygnes et ses assesseurs, les « swan uppers », continueraient à travailler au quotidien avec les organisations de sauvetage des cygnes de la Tamise.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

United Kingdom is a country in Europe. Its capital is: London. Its official language is: English. Other languages include: Cornish; Irish; Ulster-Scots; Scots; Scottish Gaelic; Welsh; Pitcairnese; Guernésiais; French; Jèrriais; Manx. Its currency is: Pound Sterling.

Code: GB | GBR
FR: Royaume-Uni
DE: Königreich Großbritannien
IT: Regno Unito
ES: Reino Unido
ZH: 英国
PI: yīngguó
JA: イギリス
RO: Igirisu
Capital: London

Second Gulf War

The Iraq War (or Second Gulf War) was conducted in 2003 on the initiative of the United States, the United Kingdom and a few allies. It lead to the overthrow of Saddam Hussein (1937 - 2006).


La guerre d’Irak (ou troisième guerre du golfe) est conduite en 2003 à l’initiative des Etats-Unis, du Royaume-Uni et de quelques alliés. Elle mène au renversement de Saddam Hussein (1937 / 2006).