inipi

inipi

Inipi - A type of sweat lodge, a Lakota purification ceremony. Stones are heated and placed in the floor of the hut inside a central well. Producing heat and steam, they are brought to the hut several times, in honor of the four cardinal directions. Prayers to Wakan Tanka are also formulated in order to protect or (re)establish both physical and mental health.


inipi

Inipi - Un type de hutte à sudation, une cérémonie de purification notamment chez les Lakota. Des pierres sont chauffées puis placées dans le sol de la hutte à l'intérieur d'un puits central. Produisant de la chaleur et de la vapeur, elles sont amenées à plusieurs reprises dans la hutte, en l'honneur des quatre directions cardinales. Des prières à Wakan Tanka sont également formulées.

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Whitfield-Manjiro Friendship Society, Inc.

“In 1841 a young Japanese boy of 14 years named Manjiro was the man of his family having lost his father at the age of eight. His only brother was older but quite sickly. He sought to be a fisherman in order to help support his mother (Shiho) and four siblings. From his village of Nakanohama he journeyed to the port of Usa 90 miles to the northeast. Finally he was allowed to join a crew of four others and they sailed on January 5th to search for their catch of bonito. Being the youngest, Manjiro’s duties included cooking (mostly rice) and unloading the nets when pulled onto the boat (…)” (whitfield-manjiro.org)

The American dream – Ellis Island

The American dream – Ellis Island

"The American dream!
This is an expression that has inspired many minds and destinies...

Just a myth?
Not from an Ellis Island perspective.
Through whose door 16 million people
were able to project this dream between 1892 and 1954.

Hope for millions to approach
The promised land that America was to them.

It is estimated that more than 100 million Americans...
Would have one or more ancestors
Who would've come through Ellis Island...”


« Le rêve américain !
Voilà une expression qui a inspiré bien des esprits, et des destins…

Un simple mythe ?
Pas du point de vue d’Ellis Island
Par la porte de laquelle 16 millions de personnes
Ont pu projeter ce rêve entre 1892 et 1954

Espoir pour des millions d’aborder
La terre promise qu’était à leur yeux l'Amérique.

On estime ainsi que plus de 100 millions d'Américains
Auraient un ou plusieurs ancêtres
Qui seraient passés par Ellis Island… »

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Sun Dance – Blackfoots

"The Blackfoots most important spiritual ceremony is the Sun Dance. Taking place over eight days in the summer, it is also known as the Medicine Lodge Ceremony. It centers around dancing, singing, prayer and fasting, and the buffalo is the highlight of the ceremony. The ceremony was deemed illegal from the 1890s until 1934, when it was restored." (thevintagenews.com)


"La cérémonie spirituelle la plus importante des Blackfoots est la danse du soleil, se déroulant sur huit jours en été. Il se concentre sur la danse, le chant, la prière et le jeûne, et le buffle est le clou de la cérémonie. La cérémonie a été jugée illégale à partir des années 1890 jusqu'en 1934, date à laquelle elle a été restaurée." (thevintagenews.com)

Love everything you see, including yourself

Love everything you see, including yourself

If you like the Hawaiian code Aloha,
Then you will also be very interested in
Ho'oponopono,
The Hawaiian code of forgiveness and reconciliation
From ancestors,
To the people around you
After a certain disobedience, excess, or hurting someone...
It’s the calling for repentance, forgiveness, gratitude and love…

Kahuna Nui Hale Kealohalani Makua
"Love everything you see, including yourself. "


Si vous appréciez Aloha, le code hawaïen pour la vie
Alors vous serez également très intéressé.e par
Ho'oponopono, le code hawaïen du pardon et de la réconciliation
Une façon de mettre les choses en ordre – c'est l'étymologie – avec les ancêtres,
Ou avec les gens autour de vous
Après une certaine désobéissance, un excès, une blessure…
Appelant au repentir, au pardon, à la gratitude et à l'amour…

Kahuna Nui Hale Kealohalani Makua
« Aimez tout ce que vous voyez, y compris vous-même. »

Hawaii settlements

Archaeological studies usually date the earliest habitation of the Hawaiian Islands to around 300CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas Islands, although some scholars assert it later. Following the first settlement of the Hawaiian Island, there was asecond wave of migration in the 11th century.

Hózhó philosophy (3)

Hózhó is “everything that a Navajo thinks as good—that is good as opposed to evil, favorable to man as opposed to unfavorable or doubtful.” —Wyman and Haile - The Fundamental Law of the Navajo Nation (2015).


Hózhó est « tout ce qu'un Navajo considère comme bon : ce qui est bien par opposition à ce qui est mal, ce qui est favorable à l'homme par opposition à ce qui est défavorable ou douteux». - Wyman et Haile - La loi fondamentale de la nation Navajo (2015).

Haunted by the Spanish flu, a small town in Arizona fears that history will repeat itself’

“… “Gone but not forgotten”, can we read on the grave of Carl Axel Carlson, who died in 1918 Spanish flu. It was his body, repatriated from the east coast of the United States, which had spread the deadly virus in the Bisbee area, at the time a prosperous mining town in Arizona. A century later, the town is now trembling in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic, which threatens its population of retirees and hippies as well as its tourist industry. The Spanish flu "came by train" with Carl Carlson, local historian Mike Anderson told AFP. The soldier had been sent back to Bisbee to be buried there and "two or three days later, he was already killing people", continues Mike Anderson, pointing to other graves dating from 1918 located around his own.” (AFP – 2020/07)

Members of United States Electoral College

“The U.S. Constitution specifies that the President and Vice President of the United States are to be chosen every four years by a small group of people (currently 538) who are individually referred to as “presidential electors” and collectively referred to as the “Electoral College.” The Constitution specifies that each state is entitled to one member of the Electoral College for each of its U.S. Representatives and U.S. Senators. Today, there are a total of 538 electoral votes in the Electoral College. This total of 538 corresponds to the : 435 U.S. Representatives from the 50 states, plus 100 U.S. Senators from the 50 states, plus 3 members of the Electoral College to which the District of Columbia became entitled under the 23rd Amendment (ratified in 1961). Every 10 years, the 435 U.S. Representatives are reapportioned among the states in accordance with the latest federal census, thereby automatically reapportioning the membership of the Electoral College among the states. Each political party nominates its own candidates (typically long-standing party activists, officeholders, or donors) for the position of presidential elector. Most nominees for the position of presidential elector are nominated by district and state conventions of political parties. Some are nominated in party primaries.” (nationalpopularvote.com)

Operation Condor & South American military dictatorships

“In 1975, six South American military dictatorships conspired to concoct a secret plan to eliminate their left-wing opponents. Not only would the intelligence services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay trade information with each other and kidnap, disappear and kill their own domestic foes, they would also cooperate in identifying and killing exiles from partner countries who had taken refuge elsewhere. By the time Operation Condor ended in the early 1980s, as many as 60,000 people may have been killed…” (lens.blogs.nytimes.com / Larry Rohter 2014/01)

United States Electoral College

United States Electoral College - A body of (currently) 538 electors established by the Constitution, which every four years elects the president and vice president of the United States. After the election day (Tuesday after the first Monday of November), each state counts its popular votes designating presidential electors. They eventually meet in December in each state to cast their votes and the results are counted by Congress, and tabulated in the first week of January. The Electoral College system is debated.


Collège électoral des États-Unis

Collège électoral des États-Unis - Un corps de (actuellement) 538 électeurs établi par la Constitution, qui élit tous les quatre ans le président et le vice-président des États-Unis. Après le jour de l'élection (mardi après le premier lundi de novembre), chaque État compte ses votes populaires désignant les électeurs présidentiels. Ils se réunissent ensuite en décembre dans chaque État pour voter et les résultats sont dépouillés par le Congrès, puis compilés au cours de la première semaine de janvier. Le système du Collège électoral est débattu.

Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Thirteenth amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865.
"Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

"Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."


Treizième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis

Le Treizième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis fut adopté par le Congrès le 6 décembre 1865.
« Section 1. Ni esclavage ni servitude involontaire, si ce n'est en punition d'un crime dont le coupable aura été dûment condamné, n'existeront aux États-Unis ni dans aucun des lieux soumis à leur juridiction. »

« Section 2. Le Congrès aura le pouvoir de donner effet au présent article par une législation appropriée. »

Sequoyah

Sequoyah

Sequoyah ᏍᏏᏉᏯ (Ssiquoya) (1770—1843) - George Gist or George Guess - Creator of a Cherokee syllabary.


Sequoyah ᏍᏏᏉᏯ (Ssiquoya) (1770-1843) - George Gist ou George Guess - Créateur d'un syllabaire en cherokee.

Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks (1913-2005) - An American activist in the civil rights movement, best known for the Montgomery Bus Boycott - "The mother of the freedom movement"


Rosa Parks (1913-2005) - Activiste américaine du mouvement des droits civiques, connue en partic. pour le boycott du bus de Montgomery - "La mère du mouvement de la liberté".

Pop Art

Pop art - An art movement emerging in the United Kingdom and the United States during the late 1950s – Based upon popular and mass culture imagery (advertising, comic books, objects…) often relying on the use of irony.


Pop art - Un mouvement artistique apparaissant au Royaume-Uni et aux États-Unis à la fin des années 1950 - Fondé sur des images de la culture populaire (publicité, bandes dessinées, objets…) et reposant souvent sur l'utilisation de l'ironie.

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) - An inventor and electrical engineer (Serbian-American) – Contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.


Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) – Inventeur et ingénieur électrique américain d'origine serbe – Contributions majeures à l'adoption du courant alternatif pour le transport et la distribution de l'électricité.

Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (1912 –2006) - An American economist - Opposing Keynesian government policies, he promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as "monetarism" - Nobel Prize in Economics 1976.


Milton Friedman (1912-2006) - Économiste américain - S'opposant aux politiques gouvernementales keynésiennes, il défendit un point de vue macroéconomique alternatif appelé « monétarisme » - Prix Nobel d'économie 1976.

Mara Salvatrucha

Mara Salvatrucha

(or MS-13) A highly criminal and violent gang founded in Los Angeles since the 1970s, initially intended to protect Salvadoran immigrants from other gangs in Los Angeles area – His members were partly deported to El Salvador after the Salvadoran Civil War in 1992, and spread all over North and Central America.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. (1929 –1968) – An American Baptist minister and activist through nonviolence and civil disobedience, known as the most prominent leader in the civil rights movement - During the 1963 March on Washington, he delivered his famous speech: "I Have a Dream...". Assassinated in 1968.


Martin Luther King Jr. (1929 –1968) - Pasteur baptiste américain, militant pour la non-violence et la désobéissance civile, reconnu comme le dirigeant le plus en vue du mouvement des droits civiques - Durant la Marche sur Washington en 1963, il délivra il y délivra son célèbre discours: "J'ai un rêve..." - Assassiné en 1968.

Marlene Dietrich

Marlene Dietrich

Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich (1901 –1992) - A German-American actress and singer, one of the world’s most glamorous film stars. The Blue Angel (1930) - Shanghai Express (1932) - Desire (1936). Engaged in humanitarian activities during the Second World War housing German and French exiles.


Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich (1901 -1992) - Une actrice et chanteuse germano-américaine, l’une des stars les plus glamour du monde. L'Ange bleu () - Shanghai Express (1932) - Désir (1936). Engagé dans des activités humanitaires pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, hébergeant des exilés allemands et français.

Jesse Owens

Jesse Owens

James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens (1913 – 1980) - An American track and field (sprint and long jump) athlete. Famous for his four-time gold medal in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin: 100 meters, 200 meters, long jump, and 4 × 100 meter relay.


James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens (1913 - 1980) - Athlète américain (sprint et saut en longueur). Célèbre pour ses quatre médailles d'or aux Jeux olympiques de 1936 à Berlin : 100 mètres, 200 mètres, saut en longueur et relais 4 × 100 mètres.

Jeff Bezos

Jeff Bezos

Jeffrey Preston Bezos né Jorgensen (1964-) - An American technology entrepreneur, founder, CEO, and president of Amazon.com, Inc. Working on Wall Street in different fields (1986-1994), he started Amazon in late 1994 as an online bookstore expanded it to a wide variety of other e-commerce products and services which was to become the world's largest online sales company. He also founded Blue Origin, a aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight services company and purchased The Washington Post in 2013. All this commercial success granted him to be named the “richest man in modern history".


Jeffrey Preston Bezos né Jorgensen (1964-) dit Jeff Bezos - Entrepreneur américain, fondateur et PDG d’Amazon.com. Travaillant à Wall Street dans différents domaines (1986-1994), il créa Amazon à la fin de 1994 sous la forme d’une librairie en ligne. L’étendant à une grande variété de produits et de services de commerce électronique, Amazon est devenue la plus grande société de vente en ligne au monde. Il a également fondé Blue Origin, un fabricant aérospatial et une société de services de vol spatial, et a acheté le Washington Post en 2013. Ce succès commercial lui a valu d'être nommé « l'homme le plus riche de l'histoire moderne ».

Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (or H–R diagram or HRD) – A scientific representation showing a plot of stars, classifying star's luminosity (brightness) against its temperature (color) – It was established circa 1911-1913 by two astronomers, the Danish Ejnar Hertzsprung (1873-1967) and the American Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957).


Diagramme de Hertzsprung-Russell (ou diagramme H-R) - Graphique représentant la luminosité d'un ensemble d'étoiles en fonction de leur température effective - Il a été créé vers 1911-1913 par deux astronomes, le danois Ejnar Hertzsprung (1873-1967) et l'américain Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957).

Cochise

Cochise

Cochise (Apache: Shi-ka-She or A-da-tli-chi: "having the quality or strength of an oak" (c. 1805 –1874) - Principal chief of the Chokonen band of the Chiricahua Apache – Leader of an uprising against the U.S. government from 1861 to 1872.


Cochise (Apache: Shi-ka-She ou A-da-tli-chi : « ayant la qualité ou la résistance d'un chêne ») (c. 1805–1874) - Chef apache du groupe des Chiricahuas – A conduit un soulèvement contre le gouvernement américain de 1861 à 1872.

Berlin Conference

The so-called Berlin Conference took place there from November 1884 to February 1885, and its main object was to agree on the partition of Africa between the colonial powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Ottoman Empire, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Sweden-Norway and the United States.

Amish

Amish

The Amish - Traditionalist Christian church mainly in North America which stems in 1693 from Jakob Ammann (1644-1730), a Swiss German Anabaptist. After migration to the United States, they particularly settled in Pennsylvania where they could implement their reluctance to many conveniences of modern technology. In the 19th century, they divided into Old Order Amish and Amish Mennonites.


Amish

Amish - Église chrétienne traditionaliste principalement en Amérique du Nord, issue en 1693 de Jakob Ammann (1644-1730), un anabaptiste suisse allemand. Après avoir émigré aux États-Unis, ils se sont particulièrement installés en Pennsylvanie, où ils ont pu mettre en œuvre leur réticence face aux nombreuses commodités de la technologie moderne. Au 19ème siècle, ils se sont divisés en Old Order Amish et Amish Mennonites.

186/200cut

The ulu ᐅᓗ is a knife only used by Inuit, Yupik or Aleut women. (Inuktitut lg, Inuktitut wr)


L'ulu ᐅᓗ est un couteau utilisé uniquement par les femmes inuites, yupik ou aléoutes.

What is cutting? How to define it? From the cutting of the body of Osiris to that of Chinese paper, from the cutting of fields at harvest time to that of hair, from the sharing of a Serbian Slava to the cutting of textiles by laser, what meanings can be attributed to the thousand and one reasons for cutting? What place does this fact hold in human activities? Is digital technology changing the game?... (to be completed)

Qu’est-ce que couper ? Comment le définir ? Du découpage du corps d’Osiris à celui du papier chinois, de la coupe des champs lors de la moisson à celle de la chevelure, du partage d’une Slava serbe à la découpe de textiles au laser, quelles significations attribuer aux mille et une raisons de couper ? Quelle place tient ce fait dans les activités humaines ? Le numérique change-t-il la donne ?... (à compléter)

sex

078/200sex

Nádleeh, litter. “One who is transformed”, is a two-spirit person among Navajos people. (Navajo lg)


Nádleeh, littér. « Celui qui est transformé », est une personne dite aux deux esprits chez les Navajos.

What is sexuality? How important is sexuality in our relationship to the world? What has been the place of sexuality and gender in different ages and societies? What is it today? How do we consider the role of pleasure and that of reproduction? How are questions relating to parity addressed? What is the place of sexuality in the digital environment? How is the search for sexual partners carried out? How is assisted or distance sexuality developing?... (to be completed)

Qu’est–ce que la sexualité ? Quelle importance la sexualité occupe–t–elle dans notre relation au monde ? Quelle a été la place de la sexualité et du genre selon les âges et les sociétés ? Quelle est-elle aujourd’hui ? Comment y considère-t-on la part du plaisir et celle de la reproduction ? Comment sont appréhendées les questions relatives à la parité ? Quelle est la place de la sexualité dans l’environnement numérique ? Comment s’y effectue la recherche de partenaires sexuels ? Comment se développe la sexualité assistée ou à distance ?... (à compléter)

plane

052/200plane

The American Brothers Orville (1871 – 1948) and Wilbur (1867 – 1912) Wright are credited to have invented and flown the world's first successful airplane. (English lg)


Les frères américains Orville (1871 - 1948) et Wilbur (1867 - 1912) Wright sont réputés avoir inventé et piloté le premier avion réussi au monde.

What is an airplane? How to define it? How did air traffic develop? What forms has air traffic taken from one context to another - commercial, political, scientific, tourist, etc.? What is the role of aviation in economic balances? What are the environmental effects of aviation? What impact has and will digital technology have on air navigation?... (to be completed)

Qu’est–ce qu’un avion ? Comment le définir ? Comment s’est développé le trafic aérien ? Quelles formes le trafic aérien a–t–il prises d’un contexte à l’autre marchand, politique, scientifique, touristique… ? Quel est le rôle de l’aviation dans les équilibres économiques ? Quels sont les effets environnementaux de l’aviation ? Quels impacts a et aura le numérique sur la navigation aérienne ?... (à compléter)

tree

024/200tree

The famous tree, the sequoia, was named after Sequoyah (ᏍᏏᏉᏯ Ssiquoya), founder of the Cherokee syllabary. (Cherokee lg, Cherokee wr)


Le célèbre arbre, le séquoia, a été nommé d'après Sequoyah (ᏍᏏᏉᏯ Ssiquoya), fondateur du syllabaire Cherokee.

What is a tree? How to define it? From the Scandinavian Yggdrasil to the hundreds of billions of beings composing the Amazonian forest, from the bonsais and their care to the sequoia whose name pays homage to a glorious creator of writing, what values and symbols have we attributed to them? What is their place in cultures? How have we exploited them and for what purposes? In what way do trees (and forests) have a central place in environmental equilibrium? (to be completed)

Qu’est-ce qu’un arbre ? Comment le définir ? De l’Yggdrasil scandinave aux centaines de milliards d’êtres composant la forêt amazonienne, des bonsais et de leur entretien au séquoia dont le nom rend hommage à un glorieux créateur d’écriture, quelles valeurs et symboles leur avons-nous attribués ? Quelle est leur place dans les cultures ? Comment les avons-nous exploités et à quelles fins ? En quoi les arbres (et les forêts) ont-ils une place centrale dans les équilibres environnementaux ?... (à compléter)